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Tocci W., Insolera I., Morandi D. (2008). Avanti c'è posto: Storie e progetti del trasporto pubblico a Roma. Roma: Donzelli Editore.

Assessore alla Mobilità nella giunta Rutelli, Walter Tocci ricostruisce in questo volume la storia del tram a Roma, con particolare riferimento agli anni novanta, analizzando le relazioni del trasporto pubblico con i caratteri urbanistici, sociali e culturali della capitale. Fra i principali artefici di un importante piano di rinnovamento della viabilità romana, Tocci ripercorre le tappe fondamentali di quella stagione e prova a tracciare un bilancio. Italo Insolera e Domitila Morandi, chiamati in qualità di consulenti dell'assessorato, e divenuti l'anima progettuale di quel piano, tornano oggi sulle idee e sulle proposte di allora, cogliendo l'occasione per aggiornarle e ripensarle. In particolare prendono in esame, con l'ausilio di una ricchissima documentazione fotografica, i progetti che interessarono la stazione Termini, i Lungotevere, l'Archeotram, l'acquedotto Alessandrino. L'intento è anche dimostrare che a Roma il traffico non esiste come problema settoriale, ma come epifenomeno di una sciagurata politica urbanistica seguita per oltre un secolo, nonché come conseguenza di una cultura urbana che si è tenuta estranea alle grandi innovazioni europee. Non sfugge all'analisi critica il periodo a cavallo degli anni Duemila, quando Roma ha saputo riconquistare il prestigio di capitale nazionale e mondiale, ma non senza limiti ed errori, da correggere con determinazione in avvenire.

Carrier, James G. ed. (2005). A Handbook of Economic Anthropology. Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward Elgar.

For more than a century, anthropologists have studied the economic lives and institutions of people around the world. The results of their research and reflection on economy have generally stayed within the discipline and have not been available in an accessible form to a broader readership. This major reference book is intended to correct this. This unique Handbook contains substantial and invaluable summary discussions of work on economic processes and issues, and on the relationship between economic and non-economic areas of life. Furthrmore it describes conceptual orientations that are important among economic anthropologists, and presents summaries of key issues in the anthropological study of economic life in different regions of the world, Its scope and accessibility make it useful both to those who are interested in a particular topic and to those who want to see the breadth and fruitfulness of an anthropological study of economics.

Alberini, Anna and James R. Khan eds. (2006). Handbook on Contingent Valuation. Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward Elgar.

The Handbook on Contingent Valuation is unique in that it focuses on contingent valuation as a method for evaluating environmental change. It examines econometric issues, conceptual underpinnings, implementation issues as well as alternatives to contingent valuation. Anna Alberini and James Kahn have compiled a comprehensive and original reference volume containing invaluable case studies that demonstrate the implementation of contingent valuation in a wide variety of applications. Chapters include those on the history of contingent valuation, a practical guide to its implementation, the use of experimental approaches, an ecological economics perspective on contingent valuation and approaches for developing nations.

Krinsky John (2007). Free Labour. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

One of former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani’s proudest accomplishments is his expansion of the Work Experience Program, which uses welfare recipients to do routine work once done by unionized city workers. The fact that WEP workers are denied the legal status of employees and make far less money and enjoy fewer rights than do city workers has sparked fierce opposition. For antipoverty activists, legal advocates, unions, and other critics of the program this double standard begs a troubling question: are workfare participants workers or welfare recipients? At times the fight over workfare unfolded as an argument over who had the authority to define these terms, and in Free Labor, John Krinsky focuses on changes in the language and organization of the political coalitions on either side of the debate. Krinsky’s broadly interdisciplinary analysis draws from interviews, official documents, and media reports to pursue new directions in the study of the cultural and cognitive aspects of political activism. Free Labor will instigate a lively dialogue among students of culture, labor and social movements, welfare policy, and urban political economy.

Teeple, Gary (1995). Globalization and the Decline of Social Reform. Toronto: Garamond Press.

Neo-liberal policies mark the transition between tow eras, from a world of national capital and nation states to a world of internationalised capital and supra-national organizations. They represent the transformation from expected continuous increases in social benefits, personal and social wealth, and political reforms to the dismantling of reforms, economic retrenchment, and political reaction. Gary Teeple examines the transformation of the economic and political conditions that allowed for the rise of the welfare state and  the politics of social democracy. He critically analyses the neo-liberal policies that are being introduced by governments everywhere, arguing that they are the policy counterpart to the globalisation of the economy. If globalisation represents the “triumph of capitalism” and the decline of the welfare state, then it also carries negative consequences for working people around the world. As liberal democracy declines and political legitimacy fades, the world is confronted by the unmitigated assertion of the rights of corporate private property.

Gills, Barry K. and William R. Thompson eds. (2006). Globalization and Global History. London and New York: Routledge.

This new volume argues that globalization is not a new and exotic phenomenon. Instead it emphasizes that globalization is something that has been with us as long as there have been people who are both interdependent and aware of that fact.
Contemporary concerns about globalization are hard to avoid. Growing interdependence benefits some and marginalizes others. History is often described from a local perspective, making events seem particularistic and disconnected, rather than being enmeshed in a much larger network of interdependent events. Studying globalization from the vantage point of long-term global history permits theoretical and empirical investigation allowing the contributors to this volume to assess the extent of ongoing transformations and to compare them to earlier iterations. With this historical advantage, the extent of ongoing changes - which previously appeared unprecedented - can be contrasted to similar episodes in the past.
This interdisciplinary volume includes chapters written by historians, sociologists and political scientists. It will appeal to anyone interested in globalization and its origins.

Tehranian, Majid (2007). Rethinking Civilization: Resolving conflict in the human family. London and New York: Routledge.

This book comprises of five sections: Section 1 - Introduction: The Dimensions of Facilitating Student Success in Higher Education; Section 2 - Facilitating Student Success Through Programs in the Disciplines of Study, with case examples 1 to 5; Section 3 - Student Success and Student Diversity, with case examples 6 to 10; Section 4 - Student Success and Flexible Modes Of Teaching and Learning, with case examples 11 to 15; and, Section 5 - Synthesis and Conclusions. Comprising five sections, this book deals with the dimensions of facilitating student success in higher education; facilitating student success through programs in the disciplines of study; student success and student diversity; student success and flexible modes of teaching and learning; and more.

Bryson, John M., et al (2004). Visible Thinking: Unlocking causal mapping for practical business results. West Sussex: Jon Wiley & Sons.

Causal mapping is a tool that enables you to make sense of challenging situations so that you can get more out of them. A causal map is a word and arrow diagram in which ideas and actions are causally linked with one another through the use of arrows. Typically, only specialists such as physical or social scientists and operations researchers know about causal mapping and the tool is therefore not widely known or its broad applicability understood. Until now there has been no guidance available on how to make use of the tool for more general purposes. This book lets managers understand the theory and practice of causal mapping in layman's terms for use in both individual and group settings. It shows managers how to develop and use action-oriented strategy maps and logic models in business decision making. The authors show how causal mapping can be used as a tool to make sense of challenging situations and develop effective business responses.

Blackhall, J. Cameron (2005). Planning Law and Practice. Oxon: Cavendish Publishing.

The law relating to town and country planning has a major impact upon the physical environment and affects private citizens, landowners and developers alike. This new edition is a comprehensive text for students, practitioners and members of the general public on this difficult area of law.  Following the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004, the third edition of Planning Law and Practice contains a complete revision of plan-making and the control of development as well as incorporating recent case law. Together this provides up-to-date details of the operation of the current English planning system.  The successful format adopted in the first edition of this book, which was awarded the Gold Award for Best Reference Work by the Chartered Institute of Building in 1999, has been retained. Planning legislation is dealt with in the main chapters, while further chapters use relevant case law to amplify the sometimes complex statutory material. In addition, the book outlines other areas of land law such as European legislation, non-planning controls and public investment.

Mavrotas G. and Anthony Shorrocks eds. (2007). Advancing Development: Core Themes in Global Economics. New York: Palgrave.

Leading scholars and policymakers reflect on current thinking in development economics and on what may happen during the next two decades. Covering the major themes in development in an accessible way, this original and authoritative contribution highlights new and emerging issues, and shows how research can improve our understanding of these important questions. As well as studying development economics in retrospect, the volume explores the current debates and challenges and looks forward at the problems that affect the global capacity to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

Allmendinger, Philip (2002). Planning Theory. New York: Palgrave.
Within a changing and increasingly complex society, how can we make sense of what is happening and plan for the future? Planning theory has undergone significant changes during recent decades as new theories and perspectives have been developed. Philip Allmendinger’s new text moves away from a linear model of progress over time from one paradigm to another or a chronological description of approaches and explains how and why different theories have gained dominance in planning in particular places at particular times.
Following a brief overview of the historical evolution of planning theory and an introduction to the key philosophical issues involved, the core chapters each cover a major contending approach. The book concludes by attempting to draw a balance-sheet of the current state of planning theory and suggests how it might move forward.Planning Theory will be of use to students and academics alike, providing an essential guide to current planning theory and a new post-positivist perspective.
Zuppi, Corrado (2003). Servizi Pubblici e Qualità della vita urbana. Roma: Gangemi.
Il punot di vista particolare che si assume nel percorso di recerca delineato e discusso in questo saggio è che la qualità della vita urbana nella società occidentale contemporanea sia fortemente orientata e definita dal sistema che, da un lato, si attuino in maniera quasi esaustiva le competenze e le resoponsabilità della pubblica amministrazione ai diversi livelli per quanto riguarda la pianificazione del territorio, e, dall'altro, si sviluppino in maniera compiuta ed efficace le potenzialità cooperative tra pubblica amministrazione e comunità locali, e tra sapere tecnco e sapere comune. La sostenibilità è attinente ai processi territoriali, al loro sviluppo ed ai loro risultati, al grado ed alla qualità del coinvolgimento delle comunità locali in questi processi, alla qualità ambientale che ne è il prodotto, ma che ne costituisce anche la causa efficiente. Va posto in evidenza che i piani definiti, gestiti ed attuati secondo quanto previsto dalla normativa nazionale o da quelle regiionali, per esempio quella della Sardegna, non sono tenuti a prevederre esplicitamente l'utilizzo di indicatori di sostenibilità, né per le fasi di analisi e valutazione, né, tanto meno, nelle normative di attuazione, quantunque queste normative ne possano tenere conto in qualche modo.
Jorgenson, D. W., Landefeld J. S. and Nordhaus W. D. eds (2006). A New Architecture for the U.S. National Accounts. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

A New Architecture for the U.S. National Accounts brings together a distinguished group of contributors to initiate the development of a comprehensive and fully integrated set of United States national accounts. The purpose of the new architecture is not only to integrate the existing systems of accounts, but also to identify gaps and inconsistencies and expand and incorporate systems of non-market accounts with the core system. Since the United States economy accounts for almost thirty percent of the world economy, it is not surprising that accounting for this huge and diverse set of economic activities requires a decentralized statistical system. This volume outlines the major assignments among institutions that include the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Department of Labor, the Census Bureau, and the Governors of the Federal Reserve System.  An important part of the motivation for the new architecture is to integrate the different components and make them consistent. This volume is the first step toward achieving that goal.

Buckingham-Hatfield, Susan and Bob Evans eds (1996). Environmental Planning and Sustainability. West Sussex: Wiley.

Environmental Planning and sustainability critically assess the concept of sustainability and the way in which it is used as a basis for environmental planning. The book, which brings together authors from a wide range of professions and academic disciplines, argues that national environmental planning based on reliable and consistent data collection, equitable public participation and a well debated understanding of sustainability.
It also argues that the challenge offered by the United Nations through its Agenda 21 programme and by European policies should result in a re-think, not only about how we plan to achieve environmental sustainability, but also about the contexts in which we should do so.
Offering a wide range of perspectives on the notion of sustainability and how we should go about achieving it through environmental planning, this book makes essential reading for students, lecturers and researchers in environmental policy and planning, human geography, policy studies, environmental studies and town planning, and for policy makers and practitioners in the field of environmental planning.

Moroni Stefano e Patassini Domenico (2006). Problemi valutativi nel governo del territorio e dell'ambiente. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
il testo esplora rilevanza e significato della valutazione nelle pratiche di governo del territorio e del l'ambiente. L'ipotesi di partenza è che la sempre maggiore diffusiojne di procedure e techiche valutative in questo campo richieda una pausa critica di riflessione per tornare ad interrogarsi su fondamenti, obiettivi e limiti della valutazione stessa. Il testo è diviso in tre parti: nella prima sono trattate alcune questioni teoriche e metodologiche di sfondo poste dai processi di diffusione ed istituzionalizzazione della valutazione; nella seconda si richiama l'attenzione su alcuni temi cruciali emergenti che sfidano in modo nuovo la tradizione della valutazione; nella terza vengono presentate ed analizzate criticamente alcune esperienze esemplari di applicazione di particolare metodi e procedure valutative in situazioni concrete di scelta e azione pubblica. Il volume si chiude con una Post-fazione che invita a tornare a riflettere su tre questioni cruiciali: il rapporto tra tipo di valutazione e oggetti sottoposti a valutazione, la relazione tra valutazione e valori di riferimento, i costi della valutazione stessa.
Faragò, Làszlò (2004). The General Theory of Publi (Spatial) Planning: The social technique for creating the future. Hungary: Centre for Regional Studies of Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Hungary abandoned the practice of the former 'socialist' type planning in the early 1990's and even wound up the institutions related to it, but the development of a new planning system seems to take a longer time than expected. The author believes that in a situation like this the best thing we can do to assist practice is to offer a sound theoretical foundation. A general theory can not only lead to a better understanding of the gist and possible forms of planning but can also serve as a basis for a continuously developing methodology of learning and rationalization. The purpose of this book is to foster changes in attitudes to planning and to develop a new philosophy of planning with emphasis on teleology. Raise awareness concerning the limitations we have to face in the exploration of a given situation, and replace fallacies about the unknown reality with desirable and accepted visions. The approach suggests that proper methodical thinking and action will make it posssible for us to control our own life on condition that we fully realize our limitations, and do not pretend to be unquestionably objective in cases when the majority of our statements cannot be verified.
Zoppi, Corrado (2006). Attori Locali e Pianificazione del Territorio: Metodologie e pratiche nel quadro concettuale della valutazione ambientale strategica . Roma: Gangemi Editore
Riconoscere ed integrare nelle politiche del territorio le istanze delle comunità locali significa mettere in relazione, nel processo decisionale, le scelte di piano con le preferenze, i bisogni condivisi, dei membri di queste comunità, che non si identificano soltanto con l'insieme degli stakeholder che definiscono, nella dialettica con la pubblica amministrazione ai diversi livelli, il sistema degli interessi forti connessi agli usi ed alle trasformazioni territoriali, e le politiche del territorio, sia in termini propositivi che attuativi. La comunità locale è, piuttosto, costituita da tutte le forme, organizzate e non, attraverso cui i cittadini possono riconoscere e manifestare esigenze, aspirazioni, bisogni, aspettative, in relazione all'assetto futuro dello spazio urbano. In questo saggio si propone la descrizione e l'analisi di tre casi di studio di ricerca sul campo. Questi tre casi di studio riguardano un problema di pianificazione regionale di settore, il Piano di tutela delle acque della Sardegna, ed una questione di pianificazione urbana, la realizzazione della nuova Fiera campionaria della Sardegna nel comune di Cagliari, discussa secondo due approcci metodologici alternativi. Il Piano di tutela delle Sardegna, ed una procedura di Valutazione ambientale stratgica (VAS) da sviluppare per sostenere ed accompagnare il suo processo decisionale, rappresentano un caso di studio in cui si evidenziano problematiche fondamentali, in quanto l'adozione e l'approvazione di questo piano sono fortemente legate alla messa in atto di processi virtuosi di interazione e concertazione tra diversi livelli e uffici della pubblica amministrazione della Sardegna. La realizzazione della nuova Fiera di Cagliari si configura come un caso di studio di pianificazione urbana in cui l'efficacia del piano è intrinsecamente connessa alla risposta che l'intera comunità metropolitana di Cagliari darà quando il nuovo complesso fieristico sarà operativo. Lo studio e la definizione ex-ante di questa risposta è, quindi, il cuore ed il centro del processo valutativo. I risultati dei tre casi di studio aprono uno spazio di riflessione importante per quanto riguarda il recepimento nell'ordinamento giuridico italiano della Direttiva sulla VAS, anche con riferimento alle pratiche di community visioning.
Lane, E. Robert (2006). After the End of History: The curious fate of American Materialism. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
Robert E. Lane spent his career studying money, happiness, materialism, and humanism, and how these differ in rich and poor countries. In this book Lane illustrates his research by presenting us with a dialogue between two protagonists—two social scientists who regularly meet for lunch in a diner just off-campus. One of them is a narrowly trained economist who believes that wealth matters above all else; his companion is an eclectic, humanistically inclined political scientist who believes that the materialistic perspective is outdated and that social scientists should be thinking about other, more direct routes to human well-being. Their conversations draw from a wealth of sources: ideas from history, philosophy, psychology, and religion; and address topics such as justice, money, development, work, and happiness.
Peart, Sandra J. and David M. Levy (2005). The "Vanity of the Philosopher": From equality to Hierarchy in Post-Classical Economics. Michigan: University of Michigan Press

Here, Peart and Levy tackle the issues of racism, eugenics, hierarchy, and egalitarianism in classical economics and take a broad view of classical economics' doctrine of human equality. Responding to perennial accusations from the left and the right that the market economy has created either inequality or too much equality, the authors trace the role of the eugenics movement in pulling economics away from the classical economist's respect for the individual toward a more racist view at the turn of the century. The "Vanity of the Philosopher" reveals the consequences of hierarchy in social science. It shows how the "vanity of the philosopher" has led to recommendations that range from the more benign but still objectionable "looking after" paternalism, to overriding preferences, and, in the extreme, to eliminating purportedly bad preferences. The authors suggest that an approach that abstracts from difference and presumes equal competence is morally compelling.

Furubotn, Eirik G. and Richter R. (2005). Institutions & Economic Theory: The Contribution of the New Institutional Economics. Michigan: University of Michigan Press
This second edition assesses some of the major refinements, extensions, and useful applications that have developed in neoinstitutionalist thought in recent years. More attention is given to the overlap between the New Institutional Economics and developments in economic history and political science. In addition to updated references, new material includes analysis of parallel developments in the field of economic sociology and its attacks on representatives of the NIE as well as an explanation of the institution-as-an-equilibrium-of-game approach. Already an international best seller, Institutions and Economic Theory is essential reading for economists and students attracted to the NIE approach. Scholars from such disciplines as political science, sociology, and law will find the work useful as the NIE continues to gain wide academic acceptance. A useful glossary for students is included.
Martinelli, Flavia ed. (2005). La Pianificazione strategica in italia e in Europa: Metodologie ed esiti a confronto. Milano: FrancoAngeli
Con il Terzo millennio la pianificazione strategica territoriale si afferma anche in Italia: numerose città - a partire da Torino nel 2000 - hanno avviato ed approvato piani strategici per affrontare le sfide della globalizzazione attraverso nuove forme di governo del territorio. Cosa significa pianificazione strategica territoriale? In cosa differisce dalla pianificazione urbanistica ordinaria e come vi si relaziona? Cosa comporta in termini metodologici ed istituzionali? Chi sono i soggetti che elaborano ed attuano il piano strategico? Quali sono gli esiti attesi?
In questo volume la curatrice raccoglie otto casi di pianificazione strategica, in Italia (Torino, Firenze, Pesaro e Trento) e in Europa (Lille, Groningen, Praga, Atene), mettendone a confronto i processi e gli impatti. Tre saggi a carattere teorico e metodologico completano e strutturano la rassegna, identificando gli elementi caratterizzanti della pianificazione strategica e posizionandola storicamente nell'evoluzione della pianificazione territoriale.
Il volume ha finalità ad un tempo scientifiche e divulgative. Si offre come strumento analitico e di valutazione critica di alcune esperienze contemporanee di pianificazione strategica, ma anche come supporto alla pratica professionale, attraverso l'illustrazione dei percorsi e dei nodi critici di tali esperienze.
Si rivolge dunque a studiosi e studenti, professionisti, politici e amministratori interessati alla pianificazione urbana e al governo delle trasformazioni territoriali.
Bruno, Luigino e S. Zamagni (2005). Economia civile: Efficienza, equità, felicità pubblica. Bologna: Mulino.
Molti paradossi del mondo globale - disuguaglianze territoriali e individuali, crescita senza occupazione, aumento del reddito pro capite ma non della qualità della vita - hanno più a che fare con situazioni di scarsità sociale che materiale. Eppure le due visioni dominanti del rapporto tra sfera economica e sfera sociale sembrano ignorare tale dato. La prima considera l'impresa come un'istituzione "asociale", che si muove sul terreno eticamente neutro del mercato, alla quale chiedere semplicemente efficienza e creazione di ricchezza; sarà poi lo stato a redistribuire più equamente le fette della torta. Per la seconda visione l'impresa è "antisociale" e il mercato il luogo selvaggio dello sfruttamento e della sopraffazione del più debole. Radicata nel pensiero economico dell'umanesimo civile, la visione dell'economia civile elaborata in questo volume ritiene invece che i principi "altri" dal profitto e dal mero scambio strumentale possano trovare posto proprio dentro l'attività economica e il mercato in particolare; viene anche prospettata una diversa configurazione di quell'insieme di attività che va sotto il nome di non profit e terzo settore. La via è quella dello sviluppo - accanto alle forme tipiche dello stato e del mercato - di istituzioni di welfare civile e di forme nuove di impresa capaci di far diventare il mercato un luogo di incontri civili e civilizzanti, e persino di felicità pubblica.
Mazzoli, Enea e S. Zamagni eds (2004). Verso una nuova teoria economica della cooperazione . Bologna: Mulino.
Perchè nel vasto panorama degli studi economici viene rivolta così scarsa attenzione alla forma di impresa cooperativa, nonostante il suo non trascurabile peso economico e la sua espansione ? L'ipotesi interpretativa da cui muovono i saggi raccolti in questo volume è che ciò consegue da una concezione secondo la quale mercato e capitalismo si sovrapporrebbero completamente e perfettamente. Di qui la conclusione che l'unico modo <naturale> di fare impresa sia quello capitalistico, mentre quello cooperativo sarebbe poco più di un accidente storico. I contributi raccolti, frutto di un progetto di ricerca della Fondazione Cesar di Bologna, si pongono l'obiettivo di gettare le basi per una nuova teoria economica dell'impresa cooperativa: nuova perchè diversa sia dall'approccio neoclassico tradizionale sia da quello neoistituzionalista. I temi affrontati spaziano da una rilettura in chiave economica della storia del movimento cooperativo italiano alla individuazione di ciò che contraddistingue l'impresa cooperativa da quella capitalista; dalle specificità della governace cooperativa alle varie possibili soluzioni al problema del finanziamento di questo tipo di impresa.
Cicerchia A., Altili P. et al. (2006).Strumenti per le politiche di sviluppo sostenibile: Contabilità, indicatori e axquisti pubblici verdi . Milano: FrancoAngeli.

L'obiettivo dello sviluppo sostenibile, acquisito ormai stabilmente all'interno delle strategie dell'Unione Europea, implica un ripensamento sostanziale delle relazioni fra crescita economica, tutela ambientale ed equità sociale. Si tratta di un processo multistakeholder, che coinvolge profondamente i soggetti pubblici, ma che ha bisogno di una complessa attrezzatura in termini di politiche economiche e di sistemi analitici e interpretativi ancora da perfezionare e da sperimentare, tenendo, a tal fine, in considerazione anche le esperienze che, in tale direzione, provengono dal settore privato. L'ISAE, in collaborazione con lo IUSS-Scuola europea di studi in gestione integrata dell'ambiente di Pavia, ha avviato dal 2003 una riflessione su questi temi, con speciale attenzione alla messa a punto di strumenti specifici a supporto delle politiche pubbliche per la sostenibilità. Questo volume raccoglie contributi, teorici e metodologici, con numerosi riferimenti ad esperienze attuative, in ordine a due importanti aree in cui l'impegno pubblico è particolarmente significativo: da una parte, la contabilità ambientale e la misurazione attraverso indicatori dei processi rilevanti per lo sviluppo sostenibile, e, dall'altra, la pratica del Green Public Procurement (i cosiddetti acquisti pubblici verdi), ovvero la scelta di beni e servizi a ridotto impatto ambientale, come politica economica positiva per le Pubbliche Amministrazioni e come azione virtuosa con elevato valore di testimonianza per i consumatori, con la possibilità di favorire l'orientamento del mercato verso la sostenibilità.
L'Istituto di studi e analisi economica (ISAE) è un ente pubblico non governativo di ricerca in campo economico, dotato di autonomia scientifica. Nato nel 1998 dalla fusione fra l'Istituto nazionale per lo studio della congiuntura (ISCO) e l'Istituto di studi per la programmazione economica (ISPE), L'ISAE effettua analisi e ricerche che coadiuvino le decisioni di politica economica e sociale del Governo, del Parlamento e delle Pubbliche Amministrazioni.

Balchin P., Ludek Sykora with Gregory Bull. (1999). Regional Policy and Planning in Europe. London: Routledge.

Economic and monetary union, the impending enlargement of the European Union, the devolution of administrative power from central government to regional authorities, and the increased importance of environmental and urban issues, all have an impact on the development of an integrative regional policy and planning system across Europe and raise concerns over increasing disparities in living standards and unemployment into the twenty-first century. Regional Policy and Planning in Europe is the first book to explore the influences and problems surrounding these issues. Presenting a comprehensive overview of the economic basis of integration, this book examines the evolution of various systems of government, planning and forms of devolution, exploring differences between unitary states with centralised planning power or with various forms of devolved power, and federal states with planning power vested in the regions. The authors also question whether similar constitutional developments will occur in the transition states of East Central Europe. Examining problems of funding regional development and the establishment of effective levels of devolved decision-making, the variable development of infrastructure and environmental management and policy systems, and wider economic and social problems in urban areas within both an EU and regional context, the authors highlight key issues which must be addressed if regional policy and planning in Europe is to achieve credibility and realise sustained economic growth and a more equal distribution of income and wealth across Europe.

Albrechts, Louis and Seymour J. Mandelbaum eds. (2005). The Network Society: A new context for planning? Oxon: Routledge.

In a clear and rewarding style, Albrechts and Mandelbaum consider the challenges that the new paradigm of the Network Society creates for Urban and Regional Planning. Chapters grouped into five themes discuss theoretical and practical perspectives on the contemporary organization of social, economic, cultural, political and physical spaces. These sections are: models of the Network Society; the impact of physical networks such as transport; challenges for Planners raised by society’s increased reliance on new technology; an examination of local networks including community networks and the possibilities of setting up local networks for disaster recovery; a comparison of spatial and policy networks and an exploration of the institutions involved. This book is essential reading for graduate level courses in urban studies, city and regional planning, and urban design. With its clear structure, unitary sections but a diversity of perspectives, the book can be used easily in courses such as Planning Theory, Urban Infrastructure and Public Policy.

Moroni, Stefano (2005). L'ordine sociale spontaneo: Conoscenza, mercato e libertà dopo Hayek. Torino: UTET.
Un ordine spontaneo è un ordine i cui elementi, date certe condizioni, si auto-organizzano. L’aspetto sorprendente del fenomeno è che ordini di tipo spontaneo consentono, in molti casi, di ottenere risultati imparagonabilmente superiori rispetto a ordini deliberatamente costruiti e guidati. In questo testo si affronta il problema dell’ordine spontaneo con particolare attenzione alla variante sociale del fenomeno, indagandone i risvolti metodologici, economici ed etici. Punto di partenza della riflessione è il pensiero dell’autore cui va il merito di aver richiamato con più forza l’attenzione sul fenomeno dell’ordine sociale spontaneo: Friedrich August von Hayek. La convinzione di fondo è che, nonostante i numerosi lavori dedicati da Hayek al concetto di ordine spontaneo e nonostante i tanti approfondimenti su questo aspetto del suo pensiero, il significato e la portata del concetto (e del fenomeno) siano ben lungi dall’essere chiaramente determinati. Il libro ricostruisce perciò sistematicamente la posizione hayekiana e ne compie una valutazione critica volta a individuarne sia gli aspetti positivi sia i limiti. Ne emerge una rinnovata versione dell’idea dell’ordine spontaneo cui si accompagnano alcune proposte di metodologia sociale, di teoria sociale e di filosofia sociale. In quest’ultimo caso, in particolare, viene delineata e difesa una particolare concezione di liberalismo (definita ‘liberalismo attivo’) che prevede, oltre alla difesa delle libertà negative individuali, anche la garanzia di una dotazione minima di base per tutti.
Garano, Maurizio (2005). La Valutazione Ambientale Strategica: La decisione strategica nelle politiche, nei piani e nei programmi urbanistici. Rome: Gangemi Editore.
Il processo di definizione, gestione ed attuazione di politiche di organizzazione dell’assetto del territorio orientate ai principi dello sviluppo sostenibile si sviluppa, secondo il quadro concettuale definito da Agenda 21 e dai suoi epigoni, in maniera incrementale, attraverso il continuo e progressivo coinvolgimento, in termini qualitativi e quantitativi, delle comunità locali, e con una paziente ricerca di contatto e cooperazione tra sapere tecnico e sapere comune. La complessità delle problematiche indica la necessità dell’assunzione di un punto di vista particolare e non universale per la definizione e lo sviluppo di casi applicativi di definizione di indicatori per la valutazione della sostenibilità di processi di pianificazione territoriale, e di individuare, dove possibile, un’adeguata approssimazione di processi incrementali e partecipati, visto che tali processi non sono previsti esplicitamente dalla legislazione urbanistica e che prassi di questo genere non sono all’ordine del giorno nella pianificazione del territorio italiana. La valutazione ambientale strategica (VAS), il cui significato in termini normativi nella legislazione italiana andrà, nel breve periodo, definito attraverso opportuni atti legislativi, è, già da tempo, una procedura, o, forse meglio, un orizzonte concettuale, molto importante per le valutazioni ex ante, in itinere ed ex post della definizione, gestione ed attuazione delle politiche del territorio. Di particolare rilievo, metodologico e pratico, è il "rapporto ambientale", definito ai sensi dell’art. 5 della Direttiva 2001/42/CE del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio sulla VAS, concernente la valutazione degli effetti di determinati piani e programmi sull’ambiente. La VAS rappresenta, sostanzialmente, una risposta articolata, complessa e qualificata alle esigenze che si riconoscono nella riflessione corrente sulle problematiche dello sviluppo sostenibile in rapporto alla valutazione delle ricadute territoriali delle politiche di investimento pubblico dell’Unione Europea
Garano, M. and Zoppi, C. (2002). La Valutazione Ambientale nella Pianificazione Territoriale: Nuove prospettive per la gestione delle trasformazioni urbanistiche. Rome: Gangemi Editore.
Il processo di definizione, gestione ed attuazione di politiche di organizzazione dell’assetto del territorio orientate ai principi dello sviluppo sostenibile si sviluppa, secondo il quadro concettuale definito da Agenda 21 e dai suoi epigoni, in maniera incrementale, attraverso il continuo e progressivo coinvolgimento, in termini qualitativi e quantitativi, delle comunità locali, e con una paziente ricerca di contatto e cooperazione tra sapere tecnico e sapere comune. La complessità delle problematiche indica la necessità dell’assunzione di un punto di vista particolare e non universale per la definizione e lo sviluppo di casi applicativi di definizione di indicatori per la valutazione della sostenibilità di processi di pianificazione territoriale, e di individuare, dove possibile, un’adeguata approssimazione di processi incrementali e partecipati, visto che tali processi non sono previsti esplicitamente dalla legislazione urbanistica e che prassi di questo genere non sono all’ordine del giorno nella pianificazione del territorio italiana. La valutazione ambientale strategica (VAS), il cui significato in termini normativi nella legislazione italiana andrà, nel breve periodo, definito attraverso opportuni atti legislativi, è, già da tempo, una procedura, o, forse meglio, un orizzonte concettuale, molto importante per le valutazioni ex ante, in itinere ed ex post della definizione, gestione ed attuazione delle politiche del territorio. Di particolare rilievo, metodologico e pratico, è il “rapporto ambientale”, definito ai sensi dell’art. 5 della Direttiva 2001/42/CE del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio sulla VAS, concernente la valutazione degli effetti di determinati piani e programmi sull’ambiente. La VAS rappresenta, sostanzialmente, una risposta articolata, complessa e qualificata alle esigenze che si riconoscono nella riflessione corrente sulle problematiche dello sviluppo sostenibile in rapporto alla valutazione delle ricadute territoriali delle politiche di investimento pubblico dell’Unione Europea.
Gilpin, Robert (2000). The Challenge of Global Capitalism: The World Economy in the 21st Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Many individuals proclaim that global capitalism is here to stay. Unfettered markets, they argue, now drive the world, and all countries must adjust, no matter how painful this may be for some. Robert Gilpin, author of the widely acclaimed Political Economy of International Relations (Princeton, 1987), urges us, however, not to take an open and integrated global economy for granted. Rather, we must consider the political circumstances that have enabled global markets to function and the probability that these conditions will continue. Gilpin's new book amounts to a magisterial inquiry into all major aspects of the contemporary world political economy. Beginning with the 1989 end of the Cold War and the subsequent collapse of communism, it focuses on globalization and rapid technological change and covers a broad sweep of economic developments and political cultures. Gilpin demonstrates the fragility of a global and integrated economy and recommends what can be done to strengthen it.
The international community has another chance to solidify the global market economy that collapsed with the outbreak of World War I. Yet, writes Gilpin, the full implications of this historic development for international affairs are not yet clear. Will socialist economies make a successful transition to market-type economies? What role will a dynamic China play in the world economy? Will the United States continue to exercise leadership or gravitate toward self-centered policies? Gilpin explores such questions along with problems in the areas of trade liberalization, multinational corporations, and destabilizing financial flows. He also investigates the struggles of less developed countries and the spread of economic regionalism, particularly in Europe, North America, and Pacific Asia, which directly threatens an open world economy.
The author maintains that global capitalism and economic globalization have rested and must continue to rest on a secure political foundation. However, this foundation has eroded since the end of the Soviet threat. To ensure survival of the global economy, Gilpin concludes, the United States and other major powers must recommit themselves to working together to rebuild its weakened political foundations.

Colander, David, ed. (2000). Complexity and the History of Economic Thought. Perspectives on the History of Economic Thought. London, New York: Routledge.

A new approach to science has recently developed. It is called the complexity approach. A number of researchers, such as Brian Arthur and Buz Brock, have used this approach to consider issues in economics. This volume considers the complexity approach to economics from a history of thought and methodological perspectives. It finds that the ideas underlying complexity have been around for a long time, and that this new work in complexity has many precursors in the history of economic thought.
This book consists of twelve studies on the issue of complexity and the history of economic thought. The studies relate complexity to the ideas of specific economists such as Adam Smith, Karl Marx, Alfred Marshall and Ragnar Frisch, as well as to specific schools of thought such as the Austrian and Institutionalist schools.
The result of looking a the history of economic thought from a complexity perspective not only gives us additional insight into the complexity vision, it also gives insight into the history of economic thought. When that history is viewed from a complexity perspective, the rankings of past economists change. Smith and Hayek move up in the rankings while Ricardo moves down.


Flyvbjerg, Bent (2001). Making Social Science Matter. Why social inquiry fails and how it can succeed again. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Making Social Science Matter presents an exciting new approach to the social and behavioural sciences including theoretical argument, methodological guidelines, and examples of practical application. Why has social science failed in attempts to emulate natural science and produce normal theory? Bent Flyvbjerg argues that the strength of social sciences lies in its rich, reflexive analysis of values and power, essential to the social and economic development of any society. Richly informed, powerfully argued, and clearly written, this book opens up a new future for the social sciences. Its empowering message will make it required reading for students and academics across the social and behavioural sciences.



Hodgson, B., ed. (2004). The Invisible Hand and the Common Good. Heidelberg: Springer.

The basic moral significance of neo-classical economics and the competitive market system it represents is founded on the classical liberal tradition in which the "simple system of natural liberty" is claimed to give expression to the harmony of each with all. Though such a common good would not be the outcome of the intentions of individual agents or state planning, nevertheless, the impersonal forces of a capitalist market would so allocate resources as to lead the self-interested participants in such an economy, as if by an "invisible hand", to a coherent social order of mutual advantage. The papers in this volume critically examine central aspects of the preceding social ethos underlying contemporary political economy and our increasingly globalized market culture. The inquiry is undertaken from a variety of disciplinary perspectives at the intersection of philosophy, economics, political science, sociology, psychology, and computer science.




Nau, H. H., ed. (2002). The Historicity of Economics: Continuities and Discontinuities of Historical Thought in 19th and 20th Century Economics. Heidelberg: Springer.

In this volume, continuities and discontinuities between Historical School of Economics and Old Institutional Economics are examined with regard to common research objectives and methods. Similarly, those between these two economic movements and New Institutional Economics as well as new economic sociology are discussed. The following questions functioned as a guideline for the contributing economists, sociologists, historians, and philosophers: Can we meaningfully speak of the Historical School of Economics (HSE) as an economic research program? What are the commonalities between the HSE and American old economic institutionalism? Does the HSE represent a part of the "lost anteroom" of New Institutional Economics and new economic sociology? How and why should the HSE matter to how we do economic and social theory today?



Siebert, H., ed. (2002). Economic Policy Issues of the New Economy. Kiel: Springer.

This volume addresses trends, causes, and consequences of the new economy in micro- and macroeconomic terms. Modern information and communications technologies increase the efficiency of traditional activities and pave the way for creating new activities and products. How will market participants cope with the challenges of the new economy and which role will governments play in a dramatically changing world? The book presents a thorough analysis of the effects of new technologies and products on overall productivity and on goods markets, labor markets, and financial markets. It also deals with the implications of the new economy for the welfare state and discusses the issue of whether there is a need for new regulatory devices, in particular in the field of international trade in goods and services.



Austen-Smith, D. and J. Duggan, eds. (2004). Social Choice and Strategic Decisions: Essays in Honor of Jeffrey S. Banks. Heidelberg: Springer.

Social choices, about expenditures on government programs, or about public policy more broadly, or indeed from any conceivable set of alternatives, are determined by politics. This book is a collection of essays that tie together the fields spanned by Jeffrey S. Banks' research on this subject. It examines the strategic aspects of political decision-making, including the choices of voters in committees, the positioning of candidates in electoral campaigns, and the behavior of parties in legislatures. The chapters of this book contribute to the theory of voting with incomplete information, to the literature on Downsian and probabilistic voting models of elections, to the theory of social choice in distributive environments, and to the theory of optimal dynamic decision-making. The essays employ a spectrum of research methods, from game-theoretic analysis, to empirical investigation, to experimental testing.



Moore, Mark H. (1995). Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government. Cambridge (Mass.), London: Harvard University

A seminal figure in the field of public management, Mark Moore presents his summation of fifteen years of research, observation, and teaching about what public sector executives should do to improve the performance of public enterprises. Useful for both practicing public executives and those who teach them, this book explicates some of the richest of several hundred cases used at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government and illuminates their broader lessons for government managers. Moore addresses four questions that have long bedevilled public administration: What should citizens and their representatives expect and demand from public executives? What sources can public managers consult to learn what is valuable for them to produce? How should public managers cope with inconsistent and fickle political mandates? How can public managers find room to innovate?
Moore's answers respond to the well-understood difficulties of managing public enterprises in modern society by recommending specific, concrete changes in the practices of individual public managers: how they envision what is valuable to produce, how they engage their political overseers, and how they deliver services and fulfil obligations to clients. Following Moore's cases, we witness dilemmas faced by a cross section of public managers--William Ruckelshaus and the Environmental Protection Agency, Jerome Miller and the Department of Youth Services, Miles Mahoney and the Park Plaza Redevelopment Project, David Sencer and the swine flu scare, Lee Brown and the Houston Police Department, Harry Spence and the Boston Housing Authority. Their work, together with Moore's analysis, reveals how public managers can achieve their true goal of producing public value.



Curti, Fausto and Maria Cristina Gibelli, eds. (1999). Pianificazione strategica e gestione dello sviluppo urbano. Alinea.

Il modello strategico di pianificazione ha traduzione e significato condiviso in campo aziendale e nelle imprese pubbliche e non profit, mentre la sua applicazione al campo della pianificazione urbana e territoriale è più recente.
Nel nostro paese ad esso si è fatto riferimento in occasione e per contesti diversi, per lo più in maniera strumentale ed episodica: quale sfondo giustificativo di documenti informali di raccordo tra grandi progetti puntuali entro aree urbane forti, specie negli anni ’80; quale scacchiere di coordinamento multilaterale nella pianificazione di scala vasta in alcuni nuovi progetti di riforma della legislazione urbanistica regionale. Ciò che accomuna questi tentativi è la pretesa di ridimensionare la cogenza del piano urbanistico generale a favore di strumenti più flessibili, capaci di favorire accordi di cooperazione tra attori e operatori diversi, sia pubblici che privati, in un’epoca in cui l’organizzazione a rete dello stato e delle imprese spiazza le forme e le more del controllo urbanistico a scala locale.
Questa esigenza è già accolta negli stili di pianificazione di diversi paesi, dove esiste una tradizione consolidata del trattamento politico dei conflitti urbani, ma può risultare inefficace o controproducente in assenza di capacità manageriale e fiscale dei diversi livelli di governo locale nella regolazione delle dinamiche insediative e del mercato immobiliare.
Scopo di questo volume è di favorire il confronto internazionale tra linee di ricerca ed esperienza di pianificazione e gestione strategica del cambiamento urbano e di offrire un contributo utile al dibattito in corso nel nostro paese sulla riforma della legge urbanistica nazionale e sulla innovazione nei processi e nelle pratiche di pianificazione a livello locale, evidenziando le opportunità che il modello strategico offre per superare la frammentazione, le sovrapposizioni e i limiti di competenza, i vincoli normativi e i colli di bottiglia organizzativi che sono tipici del contesto italiano.



Friend, John and Allen Hickling (1997). Planning under Pressure: The strategic choice approach. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

'Planning Under Pressure' offers a versatile and practical set of planning methods for collaborative decision making, which is ideally suited for reaching decisions in conditions of uncertainty. This approach is equally valid for planning and development decisions in local government and strategic business planning.
When 'Planning Under Pressure' appeared in 1987, it was the first mature exposition of the Strategic Choice Approach. Since then, the approach has been gathering support among decision makers, while also becoming widely taught in management, planning and policy schools. The second edition reflects the diverse range of contexts in which the Strategic Choice Approach is now put to work: management, urban planning, public policy making, community action, and sustainable development in third world countries. New material includes a chapter on the role of software, and coverage of recent theoretical advances.



Bourgine, P. and J.-P. Nadal, eds. (2004). Cognitive Economics: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Heidelberg: Springer.

The social sciences study knowing subjects and their interactions. A "cognitive turn", based on cognitive science, has the potential to enrich these sciences considerably. Cognitive economics belongs within this movement of the social sciences. It aims to take into account the cognitive processes of individuals in economic theory, both on the level of the agent and on the level of their dynamic interactions and the resulting collective phenomena. This book is a result of a three-year experiment in interdisciplinary cooperation in cognitive economics. It has the advantage of reflecting joint, long-term work between economists, specialists in cognitive science, physicists, mathematicians and computer scientists. The main aim of the book is to enable any researcher interested in cognitive economics, whatever his or her original speciality, to grasp essential landmarks in this emerging field. Part I of the book provides disciplinary bases, Part II is focused on advanced research.



Nuti, Fabio (2001). La Valutazione economica delle decisioni pubbliche: dall’analisi costi-benefici alle valutazioni contingenti. Torino: G. Giappichelli Editore.

Valutazione economica è sinonimo di decisione: decisione su come usare in modo efficiente le risorse per conseguire i fini prefissati. La valutazione economica studia quindi i criteri da adottare nell'assumere decisioni che abbiano rilevanza per il benessere della collettività. Ma si occupa anche di problemi più basilari per la comprensione dei fenomeni sociali: come vengono definiti i criteri che guidano le decisioni? A che tipo di razionalità si ispira l'agire economico? E, a un livello ancora più radicale: è sempre opportuno ispirarsi a criteri formali nel prendere decisioni economiche? Il volume esamina le tecniche classiche della valutazione economica (come l'Analisi Costi-Benefici), senza trascurare le tecniche di valutazione non economica (Analisi Multi-Attributi e sue varianti), e indica le possibili convergenze tra i differenti metodi. Buona parte del testo è tuttavia dedicata alle tecniche di valutazione più recenti, che sono applicate su scala sempre più vasta a materie come l'ambiente, le risorse naturali e la sanità, e tenta di fornire un giudizio obiettivo "allo stato dell'arte" sulle loro potenzialità e sui loro limiti.



Pidd, Michael, ed. (2004). Systems Modelling: Theory and Practice. Chichester: Wiley.

Systems Modelling: Theory and Practice brings together some of the leading minds in the fields of Systems Modelling and Operational Research, to produce a book which addresses issues that are of both practical importance and theoretical significance. This union of the theory and practice of Systems Modelling incorporates both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ aspects of Operational Research, creating a complementary approach that requires more than common sense and results in significant organizational benefits.
The contributors are from organizations and academic departments that are major users of systems modelling, meaning their experience will be vital to readers who are seeking to expand their level of understanding in the development of these models. This book will appeal to students of computing, management science and operational research, and to practitioners who understand the many possibilities and applications that this complementary approach could have in industry.



Fogel, Robert William (2000). The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Surveying the growing conservatism and religious revivalism of today’s United States, Nobel Prize-winning economist Robert William Fogel sees America in the midst of its “Fourth Great Awakening”. In his long-awaited book, Fogel contends that the ethical and political crises that currently beset the nation are the most recent manifestations of the recurring effort to bring human institutions into balance with the massive technological changes that drastically transform the economy and periodically destabilize the prevailing culture. Today, as in the past, that process of adjustment involves the rise of powerful religious/political movements which historians refer to as “Great Awakenings.”
The First Great Awakening, which began in 1730, laid the ideological foundation for the American Revolution. The second, starting in 1800, introduced many daring reforms, including the abolition of slavery. The Third Great Awakening, from 1890 to 1930, emphasized social injustice and launched the welfare state. America’s new Great Awakening, which began in the late 1950s, promotes a zealous new movement focused on spiritual rather than material reforms.
Liberals, argues Fogel, have misunderstood the appeal of the religious right. The intractable forms of inequality today are not in the distribution of food, clothing, and shelter, as they were a century ago, but in the distribution of immaterial or “spiritual” assets, which economists call “knowledge capital.” Fogel’s study describes fifteen of these assets, vital to both economic success and the good life. It presents a new program of egalitarian reforms based on shared values of liberals and c0onservatives that is capable of overcoming the glaring inequality in the distribution of immaterial assets. The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism is a major new interpretation of America’s economy and society: past, present, and future.



Rowley, Charles K. et al., eds. (2002). The Economics of Budget Deficits. Edward Elgar.

The Economics of Budget Deficits provides a comprehensive overview of the scholarly literature exploring the causes and consequences of deficit spending and the public debt. Incorporating classical, Keynesian and public choice analyses of debt-financed public expenditures, the two volumes contain major theoretical and empirical contributions to the debate. They cover such critical fiscal policy issues as the history and measurement of budget deficits, the question of who bears the burden of the public debt, the use of deficits to solve problems of dynamic policy inconsistency and the relative effectiveness of fiscal rules and constitutional constraints as mechanisms for achieving budget balance. The editors provide an authoritative introduction to the two volumes and separate overviews of each of the seven parts. The Economics of Budget Deficits is an indispensable reference for all scholars and students interested in fiscal policy and for all policymakers.
‘...a valuable resource for anyone interested in public finance issues. The editors have pulled together the most important and influential articles in the field. From Adam Smith to the present, the two-volume set is a comprehensive guide to the budget deficit debate.’
– Daniel J. Mitchell, Public Choice
58 articles, dating from 1776 to 2001. Contributors include: J.M. Buchanan, M. Feldstein, M. Friedman, J.M. Keynes, A. Lerner, T. Malthus, D. Ricardo, P. Samuelson, A. Smith, J. Tobin.



PUMA (2001). Best practices for budget transparency. OECD.

1. The relationship between good governance and better economic and social outcomes is increasingly acknowledged. Transparency -- openness about policy intentions, formulation and implementation -- is a key element of good governance. The budget is the single most important policy document of governments, where policy objectives are reconciled and implemented in concrete terms. Budget transparency is defined as the full disclosure of all relevant fiscal information in a timely and systematic manner.
2. OECD Member countries are at the forefront of budget transparency practices. At its 1999 annual meeting, the OECD Working Party of Senior Budget Officials asked the Secretariat to draw together a set of Best Practices in this area based on Member countries’ experiences.
3. The Best Practices are in three parts. Part I lists the principal budget reports that governments should produce and their general content. Part II describes specific disclosures to be contained in the reports. This includes both financial and non-financial performance information. Part III highlights practices for ensuring the quality and integrity of the reports.
4. The Best Practices are designed as a reference tool for Member and non-member countries to use in order to increase the degree of budget transparency in their respective countries. The Best Practices are organised around specific reports for presentational reasons only. It is recognised that different countries will have different reporting regimes and may have different areas of emphasis for transparency. The Best Practices are based on different Member countries’ experiences in each area. It should be stressed that the Best Practices are not meant to constitute a formal “standard” for budget transparency.



Cicerchia, Annalisa (2004). Leggeri sulla terra: l’impronta ecologica della vita quotidiana. Milano: FrancoAngeli.

L'attenzione per la dimensione ambientale e la ricerca di un modello di sviluppo che sia sopportabile (sostenibile) per gli equilibri del pianeta hanno acquisito uno spazio crescente, non solo presso i decisori e gli esperti, ma anche presso i cittadini: singoli, famiglie, collettività. Questo libro prova a ricostruire la storia dell'idea di sviluppo sostenibile, partendo da lontano, da quando cioè crescita e ambiente venivano visti come irriducibili antagonisti. Si passano in rassegna poi alcuni esperimenti che hanno come obiettivo la possibilità di calcolare il peso effettivo dei diversi stili della vita quotidiana sul pianeta e di misurare la sostenibilità nelle sue tre dimensioni economica, ambientale e sociale.



Daly, Herman E. (2001). Oltre la crescita: L’economia dello sviluppo sostenibile. Torino: Edizione di Comunita.

E' sempre più diffusa la consapevolezza che viviamo in un ambiente naturale finito, dotato di capacità limitate di rigenerazione delle risorse e di assorbimento dei rifiuti. Come soddisfare allora, le necessità del presente senza sacrificare il futuro? A questa esigenza pressante dei nostri tempi risponde Herman E. Daly, secondo il modello economico dello sviluppo sostenibile, con cui si intende un livello di utilizzo delle risorse tale da non ridurre irreversibilmente il capitale naturale e pertanto da non diminuire le capacità della terra di sostenere la produzione di ricchezza del futuro. Precisando questo concetto, individua nel controllo demografico, nella ridistribuzione del reddito e della ricchezza e nei miglioramenti tecnici della produttività delle risorse non rinnovabili gli ingredienti di un modello che all'idea di crescita quantitativa sostituisce quella di sviluppo qualitativo. Affidato agli stati nazionali, considerate le sole entità capaci di regolamentare il capitale globale nell'interesse di tutti, lo sviluppo sostenibile diventa la chiave di un'economia " del mantenimento, del miglioramento qualitativo, della condivisione, della frugalità, e dell'adattamento ai limiti naturali. E' una economia del " meglio " e non del "più grande."



Bell, Simon and Stephen Morse (2003). Measuring Sustainability. Learning from Doing. London, Sterling (VA): Earthscan.

Measuring the sustainability of development is crucial to achieving it, and is one of the most actively studied issues in the area. To date, most studies of measurements or indicators have been largely theoretical.
However, this book, a follow-on to Bell and Morse’s highly influential Sustainability Indicators (1999), presents valuable practical advice on how to develop measurements that will work in real-life development contexts. It describes and analyses how to derive, validate and apply indicators in the course of an actual development project – in this case the Mediterranean Action Plan in Malta.
The authors explain the trade-offs and constraints involved and how it is possible to combine the open-ended and flexible perspectives of sustainability with the more linear processes and fixed targets of specific projects through the use of pragmatic and reflective methodologies.



Therivel, Riki et al. (1999). Strategic environmental assessment. London: Earthscan.

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) aims to prevent environmental degradation by giving decision-makers better information about the consequences that development projects could have on the environment. The benefits of EIA are widely recognised, yet the approach has generally been applied primarily to industrial projects such as power stations or industrial installations, rather than to the earlier policy decisions that often strongly influence decisions concerning projects. Increasingly, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is being used to assess the consequences of policies, plans and programmes at the earlier stages of decision-making.
Strategic Environmental Assessment analyses the development and current status of SEA, and argues hat it is likely to become the most direct method for implementing sustainability. Using globally applicable examples drawn from the UK, European Community, US, and elsewhere, the book examines the problems of policy impact appraisal and, drawing from case studies on the energy sector, coastlines and lowland heath, emphasises the need for EIA at a more strategic level. The book closes with a discussion of the possible methodologies for undertaking SEA and a review of current EC and UK government policy.



Gormley, William T., jr. and Steven J. Balla (2004). Bureaucracy and Democracy: Accountability and Performance. CQ Press.

How should your students understand the role of bureaucracy in American democracy? Making many of the policy decisions that most directly affect our lives—from the criteria used to rate the effectiveness of our schools to the rules that govern our retirement savings—bureaucracies and their performance merit our close study. With a focus on accountability, Gormley and Balla examine the factors that ultimately lead to bureaucratic successes and shortcomings.
How should your students systematically evaluate policymaking in government agencies? Since one theory or approach cannot adequately cover the complexity of bureaucracy, the authors work through four key perspectives to give students more analytic power in answering crucial questions about governance. Each perspective—whether its focus is top-down, bottom-up, lateral, or on an individual player—gives students more complete and real insight into the give and take between decision makers, managers, elected officials, organized interests, and citizens.
Features worth highlighting:
Clear and engaging explanations of four key perspectives—bounded rationality, principal-agent theory, interest group mobilization, and network theory—offer students powerful analytic handles for assessing the work of agencies.
In-depth case studies on four important agencies—the FTC, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene—not only bring the book's four theories together for complementary study, but also show accountability standards at play in departments that vary in organization, size, and goals.
Insight from four former cabinet secretaries—James Baker III, Donna Shalala, Dan Glickman, and Dick Thornburgh—featured in "Inside Bureaucracy" boxes seamlessly tie to the book's theoretical discussions.
Timely examples from a range of departments and agencies—related to education, health, homeland security, environmental, consumer protection, economic, and other policy areas—ground all analysis in the real world.
Helpful pedagogical tools such as focus questions, key words, and web resources, orient students and give them a departure point for further research and study.



Kusek, Jody Zall and Ray C. Zist (2004). Ten steps to a results-based Monitoring and Evaluation System. The World Bank.

An effective state is essential to achieving socio-economic and sustainable development. With the advent of globalization, there are growing pressures on governments and organizations around the world to be more responsive to the demands of internal and external stakeholders for good governance, accountability and transparency, greater development effectiveness, and delivery of tangible results. Governments, parliaments, citizens, the private sector, NGOs, civil society, international organizations and donors are among the stakeholders interested in better performance. As demands for greater accountability and real results have increased, there is an attendant need for enhanced results-based monitoring and evaluation of policies, programs, and projects.
This Handbook provides a comprehensive ten-step model that will help guide development practitioners through the process of designing and building a results-based monitoring and evaluation system. These steps begin with a “Readiness Assessment” and take the practitioner through the design, management, and importantly, the sustainability of such systems. The Handbook describes each step in detail, the tasks needed to complete each one, and the tools available to help along the way.



McLaughlin, Kathleen, Stephen P. Osborne and Ewan Ferlie, eds. (2002). New Public Management: Current trends and future prospects. London, New York: Routledge.

The UK has played a pivotal role in the development of New Public Management (NPM). This book offers an original, comprehensive and multidisciplinary analysis of the impact of the New Public Management in the UK, and situates these lessons in a broader comparative perspective. Its chapters consider:
competing typologies of NPM
issues of professionalism within NPM
debates on social exclusion and equity
the role of different research approaches in evaluating NPM
the evolving nature of NPM and impact of modernisation
evaluations of NPM in mainland Europe, North America, Africa and the developing World, Australia, and Pacific-Asia.

Leading authorities from around the world present evaluations of current thinking in NPM and highlight the challenges which will shape future development and research approaches. New Public Management presents a timely and constructive overview of the nature and impact of the NPM and offers important lessons for public management across the world.



Ott, Attiat F. (2002). The Public Sector in the Global Economy: From the Driver’s Seat to the Back Seat. Edward Elgar.

In the 21st century, the public sector in the nation state has lost some of its insular structure. Its decision-making power has been subjugated to the forces of political and economic liberalism that are sweeping the global economy. This volume provides a framework for the study of spillovers of the global economy on the functioning of the public sector in the nation state. The first part gives an overview of what constitutes the global economy and analyzes the changing role of the public sector in the nation state in the face of global and regional spillovers. The second examines models of public sector behavior – from traditional to leviathan – in light of changes in the world economy. The ‘club’ arrangement as a global government is offered as an example for governance in the 21st century. In this book, Attiat Ott:
• incorporates theory and empirical models of the public economy and offers tests of the traditional and Leviathan models of public sector behavior
• explores the implications of global spillovers on the capacity of the nation state’s public sector to address local needs
• addresses the question many governments of the future will be asking, ‘Can we go it alone’, that is, whether they need to belong to a ‘world club’ to best serve their citizens, and
• deals with a critical concept of governance in the 21st century, the perceived infringement on the powers of governments in the nation states by international agencies and world clubs such as the G-7.

Scholars and students of political economy and public finance will find his book a valuable addition to their collections.
Contents: Preface 1. Introduction Part I: Globalization and the Public Sector 2. Introduction and Background 3. The Global Economy: Some Definitions 4. Globalization and the Public Sector in the Nation-State 5. The Public Economy and the Global Public 6. The Empirics of Public Sector Provision 7. Spillover Models: A Review Part II: Models of Public Sector Behavior 8. Governments: Traditional and Leviathan 9. Incentives for Leviathan: Empirical Analysis 10. The World of Clubs 11. Clubs and Superclubs 12. Spillovers in the Club Model: Empirical Analysis 13. Reflections on the Future Role of the Public Sector in the Nation-State Index



US-GAO. (2002). Accountability and Performance Highlights. US-GAO.

This is a short document edited by the US-American GAO (Government Accountability Office) in 2002 (in a delicate moment of the passing from the old to the new administration), in which the merits of the GAO are illustrated, like their work for the improvement of performances of the entire administration, and how they fought over money (the budget of the GAO). The document though is a brief, interesting, rapid excursus on the best functions of the GAO and on the way in which the GAO sees the continuation of its work in the domain of reinventing government. With only little employment of reading you can very well understand what the GAO is, what it does and what it reflects in the field of the always open debate both of the implementation of the GPRA (Government Performance Result Act) and of the crucial problems and obstacles encountered in that implementation in the nine years of its beginning, and four years after its first manifestations (the generation of the first performance Plans, 1997-2002). The document as such functions as the prescribed Accountability Report for 2001, the Performance Report for 2001, and the Performance Plan for 2003, owing to the GAO, which itself is an agency subject to the rules of the GPRA.



Borzaga, Carlo and Jacques Defourny, eds. (2004). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. London, New York: Routledge.

What are the characteristics of social enterprises? What are the future prospects for social enterprises? What do social enterprises contribute? Analysing social enterprises in fifteen different countries, The Emergence of Social Enterprise seeks to answer these important questions while investigating the remarkable growth in the 'third sector'. Using the social enterprises as case-studies, theory and practice is combined in a compelling argument to support the concept of an 'emergence' of social enterprise. Written by leading academics, in an accessible yet informed style, this book will be vital reading for all those studying and teaching non-profit organizations, social policy, social economy and civil society.



Courtney, Roger (2002). Strategic Management for Voluntary Nonprofit Organizations. London, New York: Routledge.

With one in every six employees in the service sector now working in the voluntary sector, Strategic Management for Voluntary Nonprofit Organizations examines arguments for and against whether voluntary organizations should now be more businesslike and considers how many organizations have responded to this challenge.
A unique collection of case studies presents important examples of how some voluntary organizations have developed, and the challenges they have faces, whilst other pedagogic features include review and discussion questions and an extensive bibliography.
Strategic Management for Voluntary Nonprofit Organizations provides an original insight into the theory and practice of strategic management for voluntary nonprofit organizations, for both practitioners and students of voluntary sector management.



Dollery, Brian E. and Joe L. Wallis (2003). The Political Economy of the Voluntary Sector System: A Reappraisal of the Comparative Institutional Advantage of Voluntary Organizations. Edward Elgar.

In this book, the authors outline how policymakers in advanced countries have moved away from exclusive reliance on the public sector in social service delivery, towards a more multi-faceted approach that seeks to combine the strengths of public agencies, private firms and voluntary organizations. This development raises interesting and complex questions concerning the comparative advantages of these respective groups in the delivery of goods and services.
The Political Economy of the Voluntary Sector adopts a comparative institutions approach to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the government, market and voluntary sectors as alternative instruments for implementing social and economic policies. The authors examine existing market failure, government failure and supply-side models of non-profit organizations before proposing a new leadership theory of the voluntary sector. They then explore the interface between the voluntary sector and the development of social capital. The book culminates in an investigation of appropriate public policy approaches towards the voluntary sector.
This book will be warmly welcomed by academics, students, and researchers working on alternative methods of public policy program delivery, primarily from the disciplines of economics, political science and public administration. Practitioners drawn from the public and voluntary sectors, as well as public policymakers in governments from around the world, will also find this accessible book of great interest.



Gassler, Robert Scott (2003). Beyond Profit and Self-Interest: Economics with a Broader Scope. Edward Elgar.

This book attempts to reformulate existing orthodox economic theory in order to improve its conversation with disciplines that have traditionally been seen as the domain of political scientists, sociologists, psychologists and even biologists, and to fit economics into the broader scheme of social science theory.
Drawing on general systems theory, Robert Scott Gassler applies economic analysis to a wide range of social phenomena that incorporate motives other than profit or self-interest, such as altruism and non-profit organisations. He debates in depth the means, problems and advantages of adapting economic theory to new sets of assumptions, and of communicating this theory intelligibly to those in related fields.
This book should not only be read by political and social economists, but is also accessible to those in the fields of education, health and non-profit administration, public affairs, and urban planning to name but a few.



Steinberg, Richard S., ed. (2004). The Economics of Nonprofit Enterprises. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

The literature on nonprofit organizations can be said to have developed in three waves. The first wave asserted some plausible objectives for a nonprofit organization possessing monopoly power and examined the subsequent implications for organizational behaviour; the second looked more broadly at the role of nonprofit organizations in a wider economy as they compete or collaborate with for-profit firms and government agencies; the third wave began the development of integrated theories in which the objectives of nonprofit organizations emerge endogenously within an environment potentially containing organizations from other sectors. The Economics of Nonprofit Enterprises brings together some of the most important previously published articles which investigate and elucidate these phases.



Faludi, Andreas and Bas Waterhout. (2002). The making of the European spatial development perspective: No Masterplan. London, New York: Routledge.

The European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) is published in eleven official EU languages and so is the most international planning policy document that exists. This book is the only comprehensive account of the process of preparing, negotiating and adopting this document. It outlines the differing perspectives of the European member states and shows that the last thing its proponents wanted is a masterplan. The Making of the European Spatial Development Perspective is a unique book offering a snapshot of contemporary European spatial planning.



Florax, R. J. G. M. and D.A. Plane, eds. (2004). Fifty Years of Regional Science, Advances in Spatial Science. Heidelberg: Springer.

This book was written on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Regional Science Association International (RSAI). It is the central commemorative memento of the Association’s first 50 years. The book was co-authored by a team of a number of the leading scholars in the global regional science community. It documents the progress that has been made to date in interdisciplinary regional science research and represents a self-critical assessment of research priorities for the future. It contains a wealth of factual information about the development of the Regional Science Association International and of the Association’s flagship journal "Papers in Regional Science". At the end of the volume, Walter Isard, the founder of the multidisciplinary field of Regional Science, looks ahead to some possible new developments.



Geertman, S. and J. Stillwell eds. (2002). Planning Support Systems in Practice, Advances in Spatial Science. Heidelberg: Springer.

This volume provides the first worldwide overview of Planning Support Systems (PSS) and of their application in practice. PSS are geo-technology related instruments consisting of theories, information, methods, tools, et cetera for support of unique professional public or private planning tasks at any spatial scale. The book desires to progress the development of PSS which are far from being effectively integrated into the planning practice. It provides an Internet-based worldwide inventory of innovative examples and successful applications of PSS in a number of different planning contexts. In depth insight into the purposes, content, workings, and applications of a very wide diversity of PSS is given. References to URLs where additional information can be obtained are very useful.



Archibugi, Daniele and Bengt-Aake Lundvall eds. (2001). The Globalizing Learning Economy. New York: Oxford University Press.

This volume analyses some of the major and current trends and challenges in the "new economy" from the point of view of technical innovation and competence building. It brings together the leading European expertise on different topics in this field.
Together the authors give a picture of the most dramatic new challenges in a world where competition is becoming increasingly knowledge-based and global. Why has the US economy been able to realise a so-called new economy based on the effective exploitation of information technology while Europe still suffers from chronic high rates of unemployment? How is it that contemporary economic systems have become more knowledge-intensive but social inequality, both within and across countries, is increasing?
The contributors to this volume share the belief that knowledge is a fundamental component of economic growth and welfare. However, the ways in which knowledge is transmitted and distributed among economic agents requires shaping by public policies. The individual chapters report on the most significant policies adopted and asses them in the light of the European experience in comparison with the United States and Japan.
Daniele Archibugi is a Technological Director at the Italian National Research Council and a Commissioner of the Authority for Public Services of the Rome City Council. He has written extensively on the globalization of technology, the measurement of innovation, and the impact of innovation on economic performance. He has worked and taught at the universities of Roskilde, Sussex, Naples, Cambridge, and Rome. He is an adviser to the European Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and several UN specialized agencies.
Bengt-Ake Lundvall is Professor of Economics at the Department for Business Studies at Aalborg University, Denmark. He has introduced the concepts of national innovation systems and of learning economy in economics. In 1992-5 he was Deputy Director at the Directorate for Science, Technology, and Industry of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and from February to July 1995 he was Visiting Professor at the University Louis Pasteur in Strasbourg. Currently, he is Research Manager for the nationwide Danish network DRUID (Danish Research Unit for Industrial Dynamics) and Project Director for DISKO - a project on the Danish innovation system in a comparative perspective.


Held, David and McGrew Anthony (2002). Globalization/Anti-Globalization. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Globalization/Anti-Globalization explores one of the most fundamental debates of our time. This is the debate about how far, and to what extent, the world we live in is being reshaped by global forces and processes, that is, by what is commonly called ‘globalization’.
The volume distinguishes two different senses of the terms globalization and anti-globalization. In the first instance, it explores whether globalization is occurring at all. It sets out the academic debate between those who think it is – we call them the globalizers – and those who think the whole discussion of globalization is so much hype. We call this second group anti-globalizers or, better still, the sceptics. This volume also examines the contemporary politics of globalization, setting out the key political positions in favour of, and against, globalization. The complex politics being pursued in relation to globalization in Washington, Seattle, Genoa, Porto Alegre and elsewhere is mapped. This exercise embraces the familiar meanings of the globalization/anti-globalization debate, as set out typically in the mass media.
Chapter 1 clarifies the concept of globalization, while chapters 2 to 7 examine the case for and against globalization in each of the core areas that dominate the public and academic debate: the role of the state, the fate of national culture, the nature of the world economy, the role of global governance, the extent of global inequality, and the ethical foundations of political community and global order. Chapter 8 sets out the range of political responses to globalization and explains what is at stake, and why it matters. The final chapter, chapter 9, offers a tentative assessment of all these issues. It evaluates the debate between globalizers and sceptics, and the questions raised by the politics of globalization. We sketch a way forward in both theoretical and political terms. Of course, it is too much to hope that all parties to these hugely important discussions will agree with us. But at the very least, we hope to show that there is a compelling way of going beyond the question: globalization or anti-globalization?
This book draws on over ten years of thinking and writing about globalization but is a novel exercise for us: an attempt to state briefly and succinctly what the key questions are in this field and how they might be addressed. (Our previous attempts run to many hundreds of pages: see Global Transformations, The Global Transformations Reader and Governing Globalization.) The book began as an essay, ‘The great globalization debate’, published in the Global Transformations Reader. It has been updated, extended and radically developed to form the basis of this volume. We would like to thank John Thompson for encouraging us to develop this text; Sue Pope and Avril Symonds for much assistance in preparing it for publication; Gill Motley, Sandra Byatt, Ann Bone, Ali Wyke and Jenny Liddiard for extraordinarily professional help at all stages of production and marketing.




Held, David and Mathias Koenig-Archibugi (2003). Taming Globalization. Frontiers of Governance. Cambridge: Polity Press.

In this volume some of the world's leading analysts of globalization discuss the economic, political and ethical implications of global economic integration. They assess the benefits and the costs of globalization and suggest strategies for reconciling it with the interests and aspirations of the people in all regions of the world.
The contributors understand globalization not as a uniform process that should be praised or condemned in its entirety, but as a complex phenomenon that can and must be shaped and steered towards socially desirable goals. They reject the idea that the results of market processes are inexorable or invariably beneficial. On the contrary, they call for a robust global governance that is attentive to normative commitments - the common good, social justice, and democratic accountability - and does not reflect the overwhelming power of a handful of governments and corporate interests.
Taming Globalization offers a fresh look at a much-debated topic, and sets out new ideas for curtailing and overcoming the negative aspects of global economic change.
Contributors include Robert E. Goodin, David Held, Robert O. Keohane, John Gerard Ruggie, Joseph E. Stiglitz, and Robert Hunter Wade.




Held, David and Anthony McGrew, eds (2002). Governing Globalization. Power, Authority and Global Governance. Cambridge: Polity Press.

In his report to the special Millennium Summit, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan sought to define a new role for the United Nations at the centre of ‘global governance’ (UN Secretary-General, 2000). Since the UN’s creation in 1945 a vast nexus of global and regional institutions has evolved, surrounded by a proliferation of non-governmental agencies and advocacy networks seeking to influence the agenda and direction of international public policy. As Kofi Annan’s remarks acknowledged, though world government remains a fanciful idea, there does exist an evolving global governance complex – embracing states, international institutions, transnational networks and agencies (both public and private) – which functions, with variable effect, to promote, regulate or intervene in the common affairs of humanity. Over the last five decades, its scope and impact have expanded dramatically such that its activities have become significantly politicized, as global protests against World Trade Organization attest. Few architects of the UN system could have envisaged that postwar multilateralism would be transformed into the ‘complex multilateralism’ of the twenty-first century (O’Brien et al., 2000). Whether the rhetoric of global governance conceals an underlying historical continuity in the geopolitical management of world affairs remains, however, the focus of intense theoretical and political controversy.
This volume provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of this professed shift in the way world affairs are governed. It brings together contributions from theorists and analysts of global public policy to explore the relevance of the concept of global governance to an understanding of how global issues and key areas of global activity are currently regulated. It combines an elucidation of substantive theories of global governance with a systematic analysis of its structures and processes in key issue areas from humanitarian intervention to the regulation of global finance. In doing so, it maps the intellectual and empirical contours of the debate about the changing nature and form of global governance. Responding to those of a more sceptical persuasion who consider that global governance is little more than ‘a theme in search of a focus’, the essays provide a comprehensive assessment of the sources of and limits to the shift from national government to multilayered global governance (Groom and Powell, 1994).



Held, David et al. (1999). Global Transformations. Politics, Economics and Culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.

The volume begins by exploring political globalization (see chapter 1). There are several reasons for this starting point. In the first instance, expansionist states and empires have been active in creating regional and global links and they are important elements of the changing historical forms of globalization. Second, different types of states have created distinctive forms of territorial space – from loose frontiers to tightly organized boundaries – which have shaped and mediated patterns of regional and global relations, networks and flows. Third, one particular form of political rule – the modern and contemporary nation-state – profoundly altered the nature, form and prospects of globalization; for it was with the development of the modern nation-state that the focal point of rule became national governments and their claim to sovereignty, autonomy and distinctive forms of accountability within a bounded territory. It is worth dwelling on this latter point for a moment.
Modern nation-states, as will be seen from chapters 1 and 2, distinguish themselves from previous forms of political rule by claiming a proper symmetry and correspondence between sovereignty, territory, legitimacy and, with the passage of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, democracy. The concept of sovereignty lodges a distinctive claim to the rightful exercise of political power over a circumscribed realm (see Skinner, 1978, vol. 2; Held, 1995, ch. 2). It seeks to specify the political authority within a community which has the right to determine the framework of rules, regulations and policies within a given territory and to govern accordingly. However, in thinking about the impact of globalization on the modern nation-state, one needs to distinguish the claim to sovereignty – the entitlement to rule over a bounded territory – from state autonomy – the actual power the nation-state possesses to articulate and achieve policy goals independently. In effect, state autonomy refers to the capacity of state representatives, managers and agencies to articulate and pursue their policy preferences even though these may on occasion clash with the dictates of domestic and international social forces and conditions (Nordlinger, 1981). Moreover, to the extent that modern nation-states are democratic, sovereignty and autonomy are assumed to be embedded within, and congruent with, the territorially organized framework of liberal democratic government: ‘the rulers’ – elected representatives – are accountable to ‘the ruled’ – the citizenry – within a delimited territory. There is, in effect, a ‘national community of fate’, whereby membership of the political community is defined in terms of the peoples within the territorial borders of the nation-state; this community becomes the proper locus and home of democratic politics.
For many of those involved in the debate about globalization and its consequences, the sheer density and scale of contemporary economic, social and political activity appear to make territorial forms of politics increasingly impotent. Within Western societies this perception is linked to anxieties about the declining effectiveness of government, the growing fragmentation of civic communities and, despite the end of the Cold War, growing personal insecurity. Whether real or imagined, these anxieties reflect a ‘fear that, individually and collectively, we are losing control of the forces that govern our lives’ (Sandel, 1996, p. 3). Thus it is argued by hyperglobalizers and transformationalists that globalization weaves together, in highly complex and abstract systems, the fate of households, communities and peoples in distant regions of the globe such that ‘communities of fate’ cannot be identified in exclusively national or territorial terms. The implication is that, under conditions of globalization, one cannot understand the nature and possibilities of political community by referring merely to national structures.
Of course, it is essential to recognize that sovereignty, particularly in its legal sense, is eroded only when it is displaced by forms of independent and/or ‘higher’ legal or juridical authority which curtail the rightful basis of decision-making within a national polity. But for the hyperglobalizers and transformationalists, the very idea of the sovereign state as an independent unit which governs itself and directs its own future sits uneasily alongside the globalization of economic production and exchange, the growing significance of international regimes, legal interaction and global institutions, the internationalization of domestic policy and the domestication of international policy. Globalization poses the question as to whether global and regional patterns of enmeshment are displacing ‘notions of sovereignty as an illimitable, indivisible and exclusive form of public power’ such that ‘sovereignty itself has to be conceived today as already divided among a number of agencies – national, regional and international – and limited by the very nature of this plurality’ (Held, 1991, p. 222).
However, while globalization may constrain what governments can do, governments are, the sceptics retort, by no means necessarily immobilized nor is their sovereignty necessarily eroded. Moreover, globalization has differential impacts; its political consequences vary considerably between different states as well as across different policy sectors. Whether globalization entails a general diminution, an enhancement or a transformation of the sovereignty and autonomy of states remains a controversial matter. Subsequent chapters will, therefore, return repeatedly to this theme.
Mapping the shape and political consequences of globalization is the key objective of the chapters that follow. But the range of states which will be considered will be restricted first and foremost to states in advanced capitalist societies (SIACS). There are two justifications for narrowing the enquiry in this way. First, if globalization does impact on sovereign statehood it is the SIACS, as the principal model and locus of modern statehood, which provide the strongest test of its political ramifications. Second, in the globalization debate the hyperglobalizers, the transformationalists and the sceptics make radically different claims about the fate of SIACS. This study seeks to evaluate these competing claims. However, it does so by concentrating the enquiry on six specific SIACS, namely the US, UK, Sweden, France, Germany and Japan. This particular configuration of states has been selected because of the differences and commonalities between them along a range of variables including their position in the interstate hierarchy, domestic political structures and cultures, foreign and defence policy postures, levels of global enmeshment, industrial and economic structures and performance and strategies for adjusting to globalization (see the Methodological Appendix). Accordingly, the penultimate and concluding sections of subsequent chapters will seek to relate the analysis of the shape and history of globalization in each domain to the fate of the six SIACS. This will involve a specific exploration of their differential levels of global enmeshment in each domain and an examination of its implications for state sovereignty and autonomy. The primary purpose of this analysis is to deliver a more systematic understanding of the nature and differential political consequences of contemporary globalization. For comparative purposes, other individual states – particularly those with developing economies – will be referred to and discussed only where relevant.
The threads of the volume will be drawn together in the last chapter, which will seek, as noted previously, to deliver a systematic description and assessment of the shape of contemporary globalization. This chapter will conclude with an assessment of the implications of globalization for the sovereignty and autonomy of SIACS. But it will also take the globalization debate into normative territory in exploring some of the key intellectual, institutional and political challenges it generates. In particular, it will confront directly the political fatalism which surrounds much discussion of contemporary globalization with a normative agenda which elaborates the possibilities for democratizing and civilizing the unfolding ‘global transformation’.



PUMA (1996). Globalisation: what challenges and opportunities for governments? OECD.

This document represents work conducted in the Public Management Service in 1995 under the theme: “The Impacts of Globalisation on the Work of Government”. It forms part of ongoing work examining policy-making systems and issues affecting governance in OECD countries.
The report was prepared by Sally Washington of the OECD Public Management Service. It is based on issues papers prepared for discussion at two OECD meetings for officials from centres of government; one in May 1995 at OECD Headquarters in Paris; the other in September 1995 in Copenhagen, Denmark. The latter meeting brought together senior advisors to government leaders — Cabinet Secretaries, the Heads of Prime Ministers’ Offices, Federal Chancelleries and Presidencies, etc.
The report is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.



Robertson, Robbie (2003). The Three Waves of Globalization: A History of a Developing Global Consciousness. London: Zedbooks.

Globalization necessitates a new reading of the human story, historian Robbie Robertson argues in this thought-provoking study. Its origins, he suggests, lie in the interconnections that slowly enveloped humans from the earliest of times.
But things changed dramatically five hundred years ago when humanity's interconnections assumed global proportions for the first time and produced what the author sees as three consecutive waves of globalization, which have radically transformed human societies and their economic activities.
Managing these revolutionary changes has proved difficult. Globalization is destabilizing. The first wave after 1500 destroyed more than 90 per cent of North and South America's peoples and contributed to war and revolution in Europe. It also generated an industrial revolution that shaped the second wave in the 19th century. But in the ensuing rush to monopolize the wealth and power that globalization promised, classes, nations and empires escalated their rivalries. Consequently the second wave also faltered and collapsed into depression and war.
Now the same fate could face us again if we ignore the social and historical lessons that globalization presents us with. A globalized humanity, says Robertson, has to develop a new consciousness of itself in order to effect global solutions based on an inclusive rather than exclusive reading of history.
Dr. Robbie Robertson teaches History and Development Studies at La Trobe University, Australia. He is the author of several books including: Government by the Gun: Fiji and the 2000 Coup (with William Sutherland) (2002), Multiculturalism and Reconciliation in an Indulgent Republic: Fiji after the Coups (1998), Fiji: Shattered Coups (with Akosita Tamanisau) (1988), The Making of the Modern World (1986) and The Contemporary Era: An Introductory History (1984).



Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2002). La globalizzazione e i suoi oppositori. Traduzione di Daria Cavallini. Torino: Einaudi.

Perché la globalizzazione ha fallito la sua missione? Perché i poveri sono sempre piú poveri e i ricchi sempre piú ricchi? Di chi è la colpa della catastrofe argentina, della crisi russa e dei perduranti disastri del Terzo mondo?
In questo libro, Joseph E. Stiglitz, forte dell'esperienza maturata alla Casa Bianca e presso la Banca mondiale, lancia un atto d'accusa contro le molte deficienze della politica economica internazionale, descrivendo con sorprendente efficacia le tante, troppe, occasioni in cui l'fmi, il wto e il Tesoro statunitense sono venuti meno ai loro doveri nei confronti di paesi che invece avrebbero dovuto aiutare. Con parole dure e prove inconfutabili, Stiglitz sostiene che le politiche economiche promosse dalle principali istituzioni della globalizzazione non sradicano la povertà ma fanno l'esatto contrario, e indeboliscono, anziché rafforzare, le nuove democrazie. E questo non perché il processo della globalizzazione sia sbagliato, ma perché le sue regole sono dettate da organismi che stabiliscono il gioco sulla base di una perversa miscela di ideologia e politica, imponendo ai paesi in via di sviluppo "soluzioni standard sorpassate e inadeguate", che invece di risolvere i problemi favoriscono gli interessi dei paesi industrializzati piú avanzati.
Un libro coraggioso che, raccontando le dirette esperienze di un protagonista d'eccezione, apre al lettore nuovi orizzonti della politica economica mondiale. Una denuncia che nasce con lo scopo di suscitare un confronto anche aspro, dimostrando come, per i paesi del Terzo mondo, le carte del gioco economico siano sempre truccate a sfavore.
"La ragione per cui ho scritto questo libro è che, mentre mi trovavo alla Banca mondiale, ho preso atto in prima persona degli effetti devastanti che la globalizzazione può avere sui paesi in via di sviluppo e, in particolare, sui poveri che vi abitano. Ritengo che la globalizzazione, ossia l'eliminazione delle barriere al libero commercio e la maggiore integrazione tra le economie nazionali, possa essere una forza positiva e che abbia tutte le potenzialità per arricchire chiunque nel mondo, in particolare i poveri. Ma perché ciò avvenga, è necessario un ripensamento attento del modo in cui essa è stata gestita, degli accordi commerciali internazionali che tanto hanno fatto per eliminare quelle barriere e delle politiche che sono state imposte ai paesi in via di sviluppo durante il processo di globalizzazione". (Joseph E. Stiglitz)



Lin, Justin Yifu, Fang Cai and Zhou Li (2003). The China Miracle: Development Strategy and Economic Reform. Revised Edition. Chinese University Press.

The tremendous success of China's economic reform, in contrast with the vast difficulties encountered by the former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries in their transition, has attracted worldwide attention. Using a historical, comparative and analytic approach grounded in mainstream economics, the authors develop a consistent and rational framework of state-owned enterprises and individual agents to analyze the internal logic of the traditional planning system. They also explain why the Chinese economy grew slowly before the market-oriented reform in 1979 but became one of the fastest growing economies afterwards, and why the vigour/chaos cycle became part of China's reform process. The book also addresses to the questions that whether China can continue its trend of reform and development and become the largest economy in the world in the early 21st century, and what the general implications of China's experience of development and reform are for other developing and transition economies.
The first edition has been well-received and is the standard textbook or reference for students and researchers of China studies. In this thoroughly revised edition, the authors have updated the data and information in the book and include a new chapter on the impact of China's WTO accession on its economic reforms and causes of the current deflation.



World Bank (2004). World Development Indicators 2004. The World Bank.

World Development Indicators, the World Bank's respected statistical publication presents the most current and accurate information on global development on both a national level and aggregated globally. This information allows readers to monitor the progress made toward meeting the goals endorsed by the United Nations and its member countries, the World Bank, and a host of partner organizations in September 2001 in their Millennium Development Goals.
The 400-page print edition of World Development Indicators 2004 allows you to consult over 80 tables and over 800 indicators for 152 economies and 14 country groups, as well as basic indicators for a further 55 economies. There are key indicators for the latest year available, important regional data, and income group analysis. The report contains six thematic presentations of analytical commentary covering: World View, People, Environment, Economy, States and Markets, and Global Links.
The CD-ROM editions contain 40 years of time series data for more than 200 countries from 1960-2002, single-year observations, and spreadsheets on many topics. It contains more than 1,000 country tables and the text from the World Development Indicators 2004 print edition and the World Bank Atlas 2003. The Windows® based format permits users to search for and retrieve data in spreadsheet form, create maps and charts, and fully download them into other popular software programs for study or presentation purposes.
Data is also available online on a subscription basis.



Archibugi, Daniele and David Held, eds. (1995). Cosmopolitan Democracy. An Agenda for a New World Order. Cambridge: Polity Press.

The form of international regulation which dominated world politics for more than forty years has collapsed, while no alternative has yet emerged. The end of the Cold War has created new opportunities for developing an international order based upon the principles of legality and democracy. But if these opportunities are not seized, there is the danger that force will again prevail in the settings of international politics, both within Europe and beyond.
The contributors to this volume offer an analysis of the contemporary conjuncture in international politics and present an alternative model of international organization: cosmopolitan democracy. This model based upon the recognition of the continuing significance of nation-states, while arguing for a layer of governance that would constitute a limitation on national sovereignty. The case is made for the creation of new cosmopolitan institutions which would coexist with the system of states but would override states in clearly defined spheres of activity. The term democracy in this context refers not merely to the formal construction of new democratic institutions, but also to the possibility of broad civic participation in decision-making and the redistribution of power at regional and global levels.
The six essays which comprise this volume present a highly original overview of the key international issues of our times as well as novel agenda for the extension of democracy on a transnational basis.
The contributors are Noberto Bobbio, Luigi Bonanate, Mary Kaldor, David Held, Daniele Archibugi and Richard Falk.



Archibugi, Daniele, ed. (2003). Debating Cosmopolitics. London: Verso.

Cosmopolitics, the concept of a world politics based on shared democratic values, is in an increasingly fragile state. While Western democracies insist ever more vehemently upon a maintenance of their privileges—freedom of speech, security, wealth—an increasing number of the world's inhabitants are under threat of poverty, famine and war.
What is needed, the writers suggest, is a deliberate decision to extend the principles and values of democracy to the sphere of international relations. Recent experience does not bode well, but their arguments, which range from reform of the United Nations, reduction of military weapons, additional power for international judiciary institutions and an increase in aid to developing countries, urge new and inspired action.
Contributors: Daniele Archibugi, Mathias Koenig Archibugi, Robin Blackburn, Timothy Brennan, Craig Calhoun, David Chandler, Richard Falk, Peter Gowan, Geoffrey Hawthorn, David Held, Mario Pianta, Thomas Pogge, Andrew Strauss, Nadia Urbinati



Archibugi, Daniele et al., eds. (1998). Re-imagining Political Community: Studies in Cosmopolitan Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Understanding world politics today means acknowledging that the state is no longer in international relations. The interstate system is increasingly challenged by new transnational forces and institutions. Multinational companies, cross-border coalitions of social interest groups, globally oriented media groups and a growing number of international agencies influence interstate decisions and set the agenda of world politics. While these phenomena have been discussed in the recent literature of international relations, little attention has been given to their impact on political life within and between communities.
Re-imagining Political Community explores the changing meaning of political community in a world of regional and global social and economic relations. From a variety of academic backgrounds, its authors reconsider some of the key terms of political organization, such as legitimacy, sovereignty, identity and citizenship. The common approach of all the authors is to generate an innovative account of what democracy means today and how it can be reconceptualized to include subnational as well as transnational levels of political organization. Inspired by Immanuel Kant's cosmopolitan principles, the authors conclude that today there are favourable conditions for a further development of democracy - locally, nationally, regionally and globally.
Re-imagining Political Community will be welcomed by students of politics, political theory, international relations and peace studies, as well as those working in international organizations and engaged in transnational activities.
List of contributors: David Held, James N. Rosenau, David Beetham, James Crawford, Susan Marks, Mary Kaldor, Andrew Linklater, Ulrich K. Preuss, Richard Bellamy, Dario Castiglione, Janna Thompson, Daniele Archibugi, Martin Köhler, Pierre Hassner, Gwin Prins, Elizabeth Selwood, Derk Bienen, Volker Rittberger, Wolfgang Wagner and Richard Falk.



Arrighi, Giovanni and Beverly Silver (2003). Caos E Governo Del Mondo. Bruno Mondadori.

Chaos and Governance in the Modern World System studies world economic and political transformations, emphasizing the instability and adaptability of world capitalism and the role played by hegemonic states in periodically reorganizing the system.
The authors look to two past periods that resemble the present in key respects - the transition from Dutch to British world hegemony in the eighteenth century and the transition from British to U.S. world hegemony in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. In each case, a systemwide expansion culminated in crisis and systemic chaos; eventually, a new hegemonic power reorganized the system to solve the problems and contradictions that underlay the chaos.
The authors find recurrent characteristics in these transitions, such as the resurgence of finance capital and the intensification of interstate rivalries and social conflict. They also recognize, however, how the present transition differs from the previous patterns. Among the anomalies are the proliferation of transnational organizations and communities, increased social conflict in driving systemic change, a geographical split between the military and financial powers, and a shift in the processes of capital accumulation away from the West.




Held, David (1999). Democrazia E Ordine Globale. Dallo Stato Moderno Al Governo Cosmopolitico, translated by A. De Leonibus. Asterios Delithanassis Editore.


Democracy is the most potent political idea in the world today, yet the future of democracy is increasingly uncertain. Key assumptions of democratic thinking and practice are being undermined by diverse sites of social and economic power on the one hand, and by dense networks of regional and global interconnectedness on the other. Distant localities are now interlinked as never before as states and societies are more tightly enmeshed in webs of international conditions and processes. Democracy and the Global Order offers a highly original and systematic account of these issues. After critically assessing traditional conceptions of democracy in the first part of the volume, part II examines the historical development of the modern state in the context of the inter-state system and the world economy; it traces the rise and displacement of the modern nation-state. Part III explores the theoretical bases of democracy and of the democratic state, and the profound changes these concepts must undergo if they are to retain their relevance in the century ahead. Part IV champions a "cosmopolitan" model of democracy - a new conception of democracy for a new world order. The author argues that, from economic development to the fight against disease, new democratic mechanisms and procedures are urgently needed. The case is made for, among other things, the reform of the UN, the extension of the idea of regional parliaments, cross-national referenda as well as the enrichment of democracy at the level of cities, workplaces and neighbourhoods.



Holden, Barry, ed. (2000). Global Democracy: Key debates. London, New York: Routledge.

This book presents key debates about globalisation and links them with the growing, related discussion of the possible development of global democracy.
Global Democracy presents the literatures of globalisation and democracy to explore the major debates. The first part of the book brings together three major theorists and three critiques of their work - David Held on the potential advantages of globalisation for the furtherance of democracy; Paul Hirst questioning the idea of globalisation and Danilo Zolo on the need for some kind of international governance. The second part of the book looks at structures and processes such as the UN, global civil society, state sovereignty, the EU and democratisation from major thinkers such as Boutros Boutros-Ghali.
This book provides exposition and critical examination of the latest thinking of leading authorities in the newly important fields of globalisation and global democracy. It will be a valuable textbook and resource for students of International Relations, Politics, Political Theory, and those taking courses in democratisation and globalisation.



Esty, Daniel C. and Maria H. Ivanova, eds. (2002). Global Environmental Governance: Options & Opportunities. New Haven: Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy and Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies.

The new book from Yale entitled Global Environmental Governance: Options & Opportunities focuses on the challenges of environmental protection in an increasingly ecologically interdependent world. It was released at the UN World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg (August, 2002).
A range of experts from across the world are examining various critical concerns and processes described in the book, which was edited by Daniel Esty, director of the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, and Maria Ivanova, director of the Global Environmental Governance Project at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.
The book reflects an interdisciplinary perspective, which takes up issues of international law, economics, ecological sciences and environmental policy.
Managing the world's natural resources and addressing global environmental threats -- such as climate change -- requires redesigned mechanisms to promote international cooperation that include all types of "environmental entities," including Taiwan, researchers from Yale University say.



Clark, John, ed. (2003). Globalizing Civic Engagement. Civil Society and Transnational Action. London, Sterling (VA): Earthscan.

This book looks at what civil society organisations can achieve and the barriers they face, when they break through national boundaries and out of sectoral moulds to work with others in global networks.
Civil society organisations work mostly at national or local levels, but new global organisations and networks are emerging at a rapidly increasing rate. The case studies presented in this book, written by researchers who specialise in civil society, focus on such initiatives, showing how, in an era of globalisation, action at the transnational level can yield impressive results - especially when it comes to influencing and changing government policies and public attitudes.
The range of civil society organisations studied is diverse - embracing formal NGOs (Amnesty International and Oxfam), public advocacy (Consumers' Association and Jubilee 2000), modern forms of citizen mobilisation (World Social Forum and contemporary protest movements) and international trade union federations - but all reveal a remarkably similar array of practical challenges, from structure and leadership issues to governance dilemmas.
This book offers practical guidance and theoretical insight to those engaged with civil society organisations in a world of rapid structural and ideological change.



Simmie, James, ed. (2001). Innovative Cities. London, Spon Press - Taylor & Francis Group.

Innovative Cities presents a unique international comparison of innovation in Amsterdam, London, Milan, Paris and Stuttgart. Based on research funded by the ESRC programme on Cities: Competitiveness and Cohesion, it compares and contrasts the reasons why these sites are among the top ten innovative cities in Europe. Innovation is one of the key driving forces of economic growth in modern economics.
Economic growth is a key concern in Europe following the relatively poor performance of European economies when compared with North America, and, until recently, the Far East. Low economic growth is a primary cause of growing unemployment, income polarisation, social exclusion and depressed standards of living. Much economic activity is based in cities and this had led to interest in what makes some cities more successful than others in generating their own bases for local economic success.
The research reported here takes a careful and directly comparable look at what characteristics and conditions in the five cities have led to the flourishing of innovation in them. Researchers with detailed local knowledge have applied the same analytical tools and survey techniques to investigating this question and the results present a unique international comparison of innovation in the five cities.



Kenny, Michael and Meadowcroft, James, eds. (1999). Planning Sustainability. London, New York: Routledge.

Environmental sustainability has become one of the most salient issues on the policy agenda of the nation-states. Planning Sustainability argues that planning is seldom credited by advocates of environmental politics.
This book explores the relationship between one of the most important innovations in recent political discourse - environmental sustainability - and an idea which has slipped from public attention recently - planning. The authors, who are all leading scholars in the field of environmental politics, explore the different implications of sustainability for public planning in the industrialised world.
Contributors: Charles E. Lindblom, Michael Redclift, Michael Jacobs, William Rees, Wouter Achterberg, Paul Selman, Tim Lang, Martin Janicke and Helga Jorgens



Cullingworth, Barry and Caves, Roger W., eds. (2003). Policies, Issues and Processes. 2nd Edition. London, New York: Routledge.

This extensively revised and updated second edition of Planning in the USA continues to provide a comprehensive introduction to the policies, theory and practice of planning. Outlining land use, urban planning and environmental protection policies, this fully illustrated book explains the nature of the planning process and the way in which policy issues are identified, defined and approached.
The second edition encorporates new planning legislation and regulations at the state and federal layers of government, and examines local ordinances in a variety of planning areas.
This book gives a detailed account of urbanization in the United States and reveals the problematic nature and limitations of the planning process, the fallibility of experts and the difficulties facing policy makers in their search for solutions. Planning in the USA is an essential book for students, planners and all who are concerned with the nature of contemporary urban and environmental problems.



Stanghellini, Stefano, ed. (2003). La selezione di progetti e il controllo dei costi nella riqualificazione urbana e territoriale Firenze: Alinea.

L'odierna attenzione delle discipline che si occupano dell'ambiente costruito è fortemente attratta dalle problematiche della transformazione urbana e dai processi di pianificazione, progettazione ed investimento avviati per riqualificare le nostre città. In tale contesto, il volume offre un ampio e approfondito spaccato del contributo tecnico-scientifico che stanno recando le discipline estimative e valutative.
Il volume è formato da due parti. La prima - la selezione dei grogetti - si occupa della articolate relazioni che legano le attività di programmazione, pianificazione e progettazione, a quelle di valutazione. In particolare, mette in luce la natura dell'apporto di queste ultime alla formazione delle decisioni e documenta, attraverso l'analisi di casi di studio riferiti a numerose città italiane, le metodologie e le tecniche di cui si avvalgono.
La seconda parte - il controllo dei costi - si concentra sulle opere pubbliche che sono realizzate nell'ambito dei grogetti di riqualificazione urbana. Questo settore è stato oggetto di rilevanti innovazioni legislative che hanno stimolato l'emergere di nuovi comportamenti e di nuove pratiche all'interno della Pubblica Amministrazione e nel rapporto tra la medesima e i soggetti privati, e quindi anche dalla nascita di una nuova domanda valutativa.
Gli scritti ospitati nel volume, frutto di orginali ricerche, affontano questioni di grande rilievo: la valutazione dei "programmi urbani complessi" con riferimento alle tecniche multidimensionali, l'analisi della fattibiltà dei grandi progetti di trasformazione urbana e territoriale, il controllo tecnico-economico dei progetti delle opere pubbliche, l'analisi dei costi di recupero dei centri storici e dei loro effetti economici.
Lo sviluppo di questi temi produce una trama di risultati molto ricca sul piano teorico e - soprattutto - su quallo applicativo, destinata a contribuire alla formazione di chi opera nel campo dell'estimo e della valutazione, ma anche ad allargare le conscenze di quanti si occupano delle numerose discipline che interagiscono con questa specifca area di studio.



OECD (2004). Measuring Sustainable Development: Integrated Economic, Environmental and Social Frameworks. OECD.

The term “Sustainable Development” seemed to take life with the Brundtland Commission Report of 1989. Indeed the definitions and analysis offered in that Report still enjoy wide acceptance. Members of the OECD agree that Sustainable Development stands on three pillars: economic, social and environmental. And, in fact, the aims of the OECD, as set forth in its Convention drafted some 44 years ago, targeted Sustainable Development. The first part of Article I reads:
to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in Member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy;
This squarely addresses the economic and social dimensions of Sustainable Development. The OECD has pursued those aspects of Sustainable Development with determination since that time, and the spectacular growth of OECD economies, complemented by social safety nets, public health, education and so on, bears testimony to the success of the OECD in implementing Sustainable Development within the framework of the two pillars.
But what of the third pillar, the environment? It was not mentioned in the Convention and this should not be a surprise because 44 years ago, it was not on the public agenda. We hardly spoke of the environment until Rachel Carson woke us up in 1962 with her seminal work “Silent Spring”! Once again, the OECD was out in front when in 1970 Secretary-General Emil Van Lennep established the Environmental Directorate and the very first intergovernmental committee dealing with the environment. In fact, Gro Harlem Brundtland chaired the first OECD Ministerial meeting on the environment in 1974.
So it was in the early 1970s that the OECD began to address all three pillars of
Sustainable Development, some 19 years before the Brundtland Commission Report. Does this mean that nothing has changed and that for the OECD it is business as usual? Not at all. The broad interdisciplinary reach of the OECD enables it to address, in an informed and thoughtful way, the trade-offs that arise when the policies supporting the different pillars inevitably clash. For years the OECD examined the trade-offs between economic growth and the social dimension of Sustainable Development. However, the trade-offs between environmental policies and the other two pillars have not been as evident, except perhaps in specific sectors such as fisheries. In order to give decision makers a rational basis for choices across the full range of economic, social and environmental policies, we need a clear framework to identify and, where possible, measure the trade-offs. Otherwise the whole exercise on Sustainable Development would be of little value.
This volume contains a wide range of papers that can help policy makers and statisticians to understand how to address the measurement of Sustainable Development and develop useful tools to support forward-looking decisions. We are still a long way from having internationally comparable statistical tools for Sustainable Development, but with the analysis and the comparison of good national and international practices, the OECD aims to shorten this process, according to its original mandate. (Foreword by Donald Johnston, Secretary-General, OECD)


Luccarelli, Mark (1998). Lewis Mumford and the Ecological Region. Spon Press.

Well known for his column in The New Yorker and his visionary political and ecological ideas, Lewis Mumford is widely regarded as one of the foremost urban critics of the century. Mumford's work, which spanned from the 1920s through the 1960s, addressed the environmental, aesthetic, and social dimensions of American culture. Clearly a man ahead of his time, he advanced a conception of regional development that balanced the needs of the social world with those of the natural ecosystem. This book first traces the development of his ideas and his work as founder of the Regional Planning Association of America (RPAA), and then explores the relevance of Mumford's vision to today's urban and environmental problems.



Newman, Peter and Andy Thornley (1996). Urban Planning in Europe: International competition, national systems and planning projects. Spon Press.

Throughout Europe there has been a major trend towards increased urban competition, national deregulation and greater private sector influence. Has this trend led to a common planning response? What is the scope for more social and sustainable planning? Urban Planning in Europe is the first book to comprehensively analyse the influences on urban planning in Europe. Urban planning is undergoing a period of transformation across Europe and the book identifies the international, national and local forces causing this change. It encompasses all countries in western and eastern Europe, providing both a comprehensive guide to the planning systems of each country, as well as detailed studies of a range of cities. The book is structured in two parts. The first outlines the forces impinging on planning in Europe at the international, national and urban level. Looking at the growing influence of the EU, a typology of countries is developed based upon legal and administrative divisions which forms the basis for presenting the similarities and differences of each country's national planning system. Having set the broader context, the second part selects three contrasting countries - Britain, France and Sweden - and, through an analysis of the theories of urban decision-making, explores planning policies and projects in a range of cities: Birmingham, London, Paris, Lille, Malmo and Stockholm. The authors show that there is variety in urban planning due to differences in legal and administrative structures, local politics and the relative power of interest groups. These opportunities for innovation in the face of contemporary planning trends contain important lessons for the development of future European planning systems.



Sampford, Charles and Noel Preston, eds. (199). Public Sector Ethics: finding and implementing values.. Routledge.

Public sector ethics has become an increasingly crucial issue since Watergate. Whether it be the recommendations of an ombudsman or the unearthing of a ministerial misdoing, ethics in the public sector is a topic under constant scrutiny the media, the public and the public sector itself.
This book provides a balance between theoretical perspectives on public sector ethics, experiences of implementation and suggestions for ways forward. While not a 'how to' guide per se, it does offer guidelines based on theoretical consideration and practical experience which could be of use to those teaching ethics within the public sector, structuring ethics programs or codes or implementing such activities.



Dalal-Clayton, Barry et al. (2002). Rural Planning in Developing Countries: supporting natural resource management and sustainable livelihoods.. Earthscan.

A major population shift from rural to urban areas in the developing world has led to an increasing proportion of people living in towns and cities. These burgeoning cities depend on their hinterlands for water supplies and waste disposal; rural population is still increasing in absolute terms and there are increasing two-way flows of people, resources and activities. As a result, rural planning in isolation from the wider economy is not realistic. There has never been a greater need for development planning and good management of natural resources.
This book provides an international perspective on rural planning in developing countries. It examines conventional technical development planning and innovations in local planning. It looks at a range of approaches to participation in planning, and explores the basis for stakeholder collaboration.
The authors analyse and draw lessons from past and current practice and ways that land use planning and management of natural resources can underpin sustainable local livelihoods. They draw on case studies from Africa, Asia and Latin America to present findings and recommendations relevant throughout the developing world.



Hopkins, Michael (2003). The Planetary Bargain: corporate social responsibility matters.Earthscan.

Corporate scandals and lack of confidence in our largest institutions mean that corporate social responsibility (CSR) now matters more than ever. Encroaching on CSR are concepts such as corporate sustainability and corporate citizenship, and older concerns with business ethics, business in society and the ethical corporation. This significantly revised and updated version of The Planetary Bargain explains the relations among these concepts and reflects the author’s new ideas and their new context.
Enterprises across the world are waking up to the need for social responsibility towards shareholders and potential investors, managers and other employees, customers, business partners and contractors or suppliers, the natural environment and the communities within which they operate, including national governments and non-governmental organizations.
Drawing on case studies of international companies and analysis of research from the past two decades, The Planetary Bargain shows how corporations can preserve their profitability while treating all stakeholders ethically and responsibly. It suggests a cooperative CSR strategy which creates prosperity for corporations and for the people they serve. It presents the case for a worldwide agreement, or ‘planetary bargain’, between private and public sectors, arguing that it is good for business and essential for future prosperity and stability.


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